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WIKI project pictures and info I contributed to the Copernican Revoultion.

  • Pictures I put directly into the article page.
  • Added the info I have on people to Indigo's user page User:IndigoDeberry/sandbox.
  • After adding the info to his page, we put our article up on the main wiki article.
  • NOTE: we completely redid the article, so bytes displayed was what we added to the existing amount of bytes even though it was different info.
Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar system from Mysterium Cosmographicum (1600)
Nicolaus Copernicus's heliocentric model
Tycho Brahe's Great Comet of 1577

Copernican revolution

Historical overview[edit]

The Copernican Revolution started with the publishing of the book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium by Nicolaus Copernicus. His book proposed a heliocentric system verses the widely accepted geocentric system of that time. Then next astronomer to further the revolution would be Tycho Brahe. Tycho challenged the Aristotelian model for he observed a comet that went through the region of the planets. This region was said to only have uniform circular motion on solid spheres, which meant that it would be impossible for a comet to enter into the area.[1] Johannes Kepler followed Tycho and developed the three laws of planetary motion. Kepler would not have been able to produce his laws without the observations of Tycho, because they allowed Kepler to prove that planets traveled in ellipses, and that the sun does not sit directly in the center of an orbit but off to the side. Galileo Galilei came after Kepler and developed his own telescope with enough magnification to allow him to study Venus and discover that it has phases like a moon. The discovery of the phases of Venus was one of the more influential reasons for the transition from geocentrism to heliocentrism. [2] Sir Isaac Newton was the character who put the missing parts in they system that led to the end of the Copernican Revolution. The end was with the development of his laws of planetary motion and universal gravitation which explain observational motion related to the heavens and gravitational force of attraction on two objects.[3]

Johannes Kepler[edit]

In 1596, Johannes Kepler published his Mysterium Cosmographicum which argued that the structure of the universe was based on five Platonic solids enclosed inside a sphere that represented the orbit of Saturn. The five shapes of the Platonic solids were tetrahedron(four faces), cube or hexagon (six faces, octahedron (eight faces), dodecahedron (twelve faces), and icosahedron(twenty faces). In 1609 Kepler published his book Nova Astronomia which argued heliocentrism and ellipses for planetary orbits instead of circles modified by epicycles in which Copernicus used. Nova Astronomia presented the first two laws of planetary motion by Kepler, but the laws would not have been formulated without the careful observations of Tycho Brahe. Tycho's observations allowed Kepler to prove that planets traveled in ellipses, and that the sun does not sit directly in the center of the orbit but off to the side. Kepler's second law was proven when he realized planets did travel in ellipses at different velocities, but still covered an equal amount of area over the same amount of time. In 1619 Kepler published his third and final law which showed the relationship between two planets instead of a single planets movement.

Kepler's laws of planetary motion[edit]

Indented line 1. The Law of Orbits: All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus.
Indented line 2. The Law of Areas: A line that connects a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.
Indented line 3. The Law of Periods: The square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.


In 1610, Galileo Galilei used his telescope to observe the phases of Venus as well as the moons of Jupiter. His observations upheld the opinions predicted by Copernicus. In addition, he showed that the theory of the anomalous orbit of the Moon was not unique. Using these facts, Galileo defended the heliocentric model in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632. This led to his trial by the Inquisition and ultimate house arrest.

Sir Isaac Newton[edit]


Newton was a well known English physicist and mathematician who was known for his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[4] He was a main figure in the Scientific Revolution for his laws of motion and universal gravitation. The laws of Newton is said to be the ending point of the Copernican Revolution. Without Newton's laws we would not have an explanation of gravity, or how we observe motion related to the skies.

Newton used Kepler's laws of planetary motion to derive his law of universal gravitation. Newton's law of universal gravitation was his first law he developed and proposed in his book Principia. The law states that any two objects will exert a gravitational force of attraction on to each other. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the product of the gravitational masses of the objects, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.[5] Along with Newton's law of universal gravitation the Principia also presents his three laws of motion. The three laws explain inertia, acceleration, action and reaction when a net force is applied or not applied.

Three laws of motion[edit]

1. The law of Inertia: Every object will remain at rest or in a uniform motion unless acted on by an external force.
2. F=MA: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass
3 Action & Reaction: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


  1. ^ Osler (2010), p.53
  2. ^ Thoren (1989), p. 8
  3. ^ Cohen, Isaac Newton. A new transl. by I. Bernard (1999). The Principia. (2. print. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08817-4.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  4. ^ See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation
  5. ^ Cohen, Isaac Newton. A new transl. by I. Bernard (1999). The Principia. (2. print. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08817-4.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)

Further Reading[edit]

Benson, Tom (2010). "Newton's Laws of Motion". NASA. Retrieved November 8, 2013.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

Redd, Nola (2012). "Johannes Kepler Biography". Tech Media Network. Retrieved October 23, 2013.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

Chavis, Jason. "The Copernican Revolution". Bright Hub Inc. Retrieved October 23, 2013. 

Copernican Revolution Page[edit]

I've written some draft material for the page and posted it on my sandbox, User:IndigoDeberry/sandbox. Let me know what you think and if you would like to make changes, feel free. I figure we can combine work as we go. Also, I found the Manual of Style helpful for formatting purposes. --IndigoDeberry (talk) 06:24, 24 October 2013 (UTC)