Linking nouns (izafet/tamlama)
Two nouns, or groups of nouns, may be joined in one of two ways:
- definite (possessive) compound (belirtili tamlama). Eg Türkiye'nin sesi "the voice of Turkey (radio station)": the voice belonging to Turkey. Here the relationship is shown by the genitive ending -in4 added to the first noun; the second noun has the third-person suffix -(s)i4.
- indefinite (qualifying) compound (belirtisiz tamlama). Eg Türkiye Cumhuriyeti "Turkey-Republic = the Republic of Turkey": not the republic belonging to Turkey, but the Republic that is Turkey. Here the first noun has no ending; but the second noun has the ending -(s)i4—the same as in definite compounds.
The following table illustrates these principles. In some cases the constituents of the compounds are themselves compounds: these subsidiary compounds are marked with [square brackets].
|Definite (possessive)||Indefinite (qualifier)||Complement||Meaning|
|kimse||cevabı||the answer "nobody"|
|Atatürk||Bulvarı||Atatürk Boulevard (named after, not belonging to, Atatürk)|
|Orhan||ismi||the name "Orhan"|
|Türk||[Dil Kurumu]||Turkish language-society|
|[Türk Dili]||Dergisi||Turkish-language review|
|Ford||[aile arabası]||Ford family car|
|Ford'un||[aile arabası]||(Mr) Ford's family car|
|[Ford ailesi]nin||arabası||the Ford family's car|
|Ankara||[Kız Lisesi]||Ankara Girls' School|
|[sene sonu]||imtihanları||year-end examinations|
|Bulgaristan'ın||[İstanbul Başkonsolosluğu]||the Istanbul Consulate-General of Bulgaria (located in Istanbul, but belonging to Bulgaria)|
|[[İstanbul Üniversitesi] [Edebiyat Fakültesi]]||[[Türk Edebiyatı] Profesörü]||Professor of Turkish Literature in the Faculty of Letters of the University of Istanbul|
|ne oldum||delisi||"what-have-I-become!" madman = parvenu who gives himself airs|
As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group.
- Lewis points out that "an indefinite izafet group can be turned into intelligible (though not necessarily normal) English by the use of a hyphen". Lewis (2001): 42.
- The examples are taken from Lewis (2001): 41-47.
- For other possible permutations of this vehicle, see Lewis (2001):46.
- "It is most important to note that the third-person suffix is not repeated though though theoretically one might have expected Ankara [Kız Lisesi]si." Lewis (2001): 45 footnote.
- The term substantival sentence is Lewis's. Lewis(2001:257).