From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Information.svg If you have arrived at this page via a search engine, this author's contributions or a link, it should be noted this is a Wikipedia article in progress. It may be incomplete and some facts at this time may be wrong or not reliably referenced. It should not be treated as definitive information until it has been placed in the article mainspace. Please do not waste your time correcting spelling and links. The author of this page works erratically, and whole sections are likely to be swept away at whim.

Linking nouns (izafet/tamlama)[edit]

Two nouns, or groups of nouns, may be joined in one of two ways:

  • definite (possessive) compound (belirtili tamlama). Eg Türkiye'nin sesi "the voice of Turkey (radio station)": the voice belonging to Turkey. Here the relationship is shown by the genitive ending -in4 added to the first noun; the second noun has the third-person suffix -(s)i4.
  • indefinite (qualifying) compound (belirtisiz tamlama). Eg Türkiye Cumhuriyeti "Turkey-Republic[1] = the Republic of Turkey": not the republic belonging to Turkey, but the Republic that is Turkey. Here the first noun has no ending; but the second noun has the ending -(s)i4—the same as in definite compounds.

The following table illustrates these principles.[2] In some cases the constituents of the compounds are themselves compounds: these subsidiary compounds are marked with [square brackets].

Linked nouns and noun groups
Definite (possessive) Indefinite (qualifier) Complement Meaning
kimsenin cevabı nobody's answer
kimse cevabı the answer "nobody"
Atatürk'ün evi Atatürk's house
Atatürk Bulvarı Atatürk Boulevard (named after, not belonging to, Atatürk)
Orhan'ın ismi Orhan's name
Orhan ismi the name "Orhan"
Türk [Dil Kurumu] Turkish language-society
[Türk Dili] Dergisi Turkish-language review
Ford [aile arabası] Ford family car
Ford'un [aile arabası] (Mr) Ford's family car
[Ford ailesi]nin arabası the Ford family's car[3]
Ankara [Kız Lisesi][4] Ankara Girls' School
[sene sonu] imtihanları year-end examinations
Bulgaristan'ın [İstanbul Başkonsolosluğu] the Istanbul Consulate-General of Bulgaria (located in Istanbul, but belonging to Bulgaria)
[[İstanbul Üniversitesi] [Edebiyat Fakültesi]] [[Türk Edebiyatı] Profesörü] Professor of Turkish Literature in the Faculty of Letters of the University of Istanbul
ne oldum delisi "what-have-I-become!" madman = parvenu who gives himself airs

As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group.[5]


  1. ^ Lewis points out that "an indefinite izafet group can be turned into intelligible (though not necessarily normal) English by the use of a hyphen". Lewis (2001): 42.
  2. ^ The examples are taken from Lewis (2001): 41-47.
  3. ^ For other possible permutations of this vehicle, see Lewis (2001):46.
  4. ^ "It is most important to note that the third-person suffix is not repeated though though theoretically one might have expected Ankara [Kız Lisesi]si." Lewis (2001): 45 footnote.
  5. ^ The term substantival sentence is Lewis's. Lewis(2001:257).