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Version as Japanese territory as nenounce territory by Japan
till silence describe
till describe silence
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== interim ==


User:Kingj123 This is not an encyclopedic article.



Dokdo (Takeshima) is a group of islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea) whose sovereignty remains unsettled. [1] The islets are claimed by both Japan and South Korea, but have been occupied by South Korea since 1954 despite repeated protests by Japan. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Takeshima is the Japanese name, officially given when Japan incorporated it into the Shimane Prefecture in 1905.[11] And Dokdo is the Korean name, which the Koreans formally gave in 1906, after Japan notified them of its incorporation.[12] [13] The islets had been also known as the Liancourt Rocks in English, since the French whaling ship charted the islets in 1849.

Japanese claims are based on seventeenth century records and a reconfirmation of their intent to incorporate it into the Shimane Prefecture, as they did in 1905. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]Japan designates the islets as a part of Okinoshima Town of the Oki District in Shimane Prefecture.[20]

Korean claims are based on records that date back to the sixth century, including the 1900 Korean Empire ordinance that officially incorporated Dokdo into the modern-day Ulleung County of the Gyeongsangbuk-do.

  1. ^ United Nations. "List of Territories" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 2007-02-10. Status of Liancourt Rock :Sovereignity Unsettled 
  2. ^ CIA (2007-02-08). "The world fact book". CIA. Retrieved 2007-02-10. South Korea and Japan claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954 
  3. ^ "Seoul and Tokyo hold island talks". BBC. 2005-04-20. Retrieved 2007-02-10. Japan's and South Korea's claims go back centuries, but islands occupied by S Korea since 1953 
  4. ^ Anthony, Faiola (2005-05-16). "Islands Come Between South Korea and Japan". TIME. Retrieved 2007-02-10. Occupied by South Korea in the 1950s, the islands are coveted largely for their fishing rights. The Japanese have called the occupation illegal. 
  5. ^ "Liancourt Rocks". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2001-05. the Liancourt Rocks are claimed by Japan and South Korea, and have been occupied by South Korea since 1954.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ "Key facts over disputed islands". TVNZ. 2005-05-16. Retrieved 2007-02-10. South Korea has built lodgings, lighthouses and a monitoring facility on the islets despite repeated protests by Japan. 
  7. ^ GrovalSecurity. "Liancourt Rocks / Takeshima / Dokdo / Tokto". GrovalSecurity. Retrieved 2007-02-10. During the rule of Syngman Rhee, South Korean navy vessels were dispatched to chase away Japanese intruders on the island. Since 1954, South Korea's Coast Guard has been stationed there as a symbol of the nation's ownership. Since July 1954 to the present, the Republic of Korea has stationed a number of security guards on Takeshima, the scale of which has continued to increase year by year, including lodgings, a lighthouse, a monitoring facility and antenna. In November 1997, despite repeated protests by Japan 
  8. ^ Jon M. Van Dyke. "Who Owns Tok-Do/Takeshima?" (PDF). pp. 16–23. Retrieved 2007-02-10. Japan's protests appear to have been sufficient to overcome a presumption of acquiescence, and thus if Korea's claim were based solely on its occupation of the islets since World War II, these protests could be seen as adequate to block a claim based on prescription. If Korea's claim is based on its earlier historical exercises of sovereignty over the islet, however, Japan's persistent protests would be less significant.Korea has been unreceptive to Japan's initiatives to submit the dispute to the ICJ, saying that there is no dispute to resolve. This position may be viewed later by a tribunal as inconsistent with the obligation of every state to resolve disputes peaceably, and Korea may be asked to explain whether the ICJ was in some way an inadequate or unfair forum. 
  9. ^ Kim, Chan Kyu. "獨島問題와 國際裁判(Dokdo problem and International justice)" (PDF) (in Korean). p. 159. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 현재 한일간에 서로 주장이 다르나 국제판례나 국내 여러 국제 법학자 들의 견해로는 독도문제의 결정적 기일은 일본의 주장대로 일본이 처음 공식 항의를 제기한 1952년 2월 28일이 될 가능성이높은 것으로 되어 있다.(Judicial precedents and a lot of domestic(Korean) scholars of International Law say that the critical date will be set on February 28, 1952 as Japan insisted.) 
  10. ^ "Japan send the verbal note every year" (in Japanese). Chosunilbo. 2005-03-21. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 日本政府が毎年3月には独島(トクド)に対する領有権を主張する口上書(Verbal Note)を韓国政府宛てに送っている。口上書は「在大韓民国・日本国大使館は大韓民国外交部に対し、竹島(独島の日本式名称)が歴史的にも、法的にも日本固有の領土ということを明らかにする。大韓民国は竹島に対する不法な領有を中断することを要請する」という二つの文章からなる。(Japan sends the verbal note to the South Korea government every year. The note says that Takeshima is Japanese territory legally and historically and Japan requests South Korea to discontinue an unlawful occupation.) 
  11. ^ "Chronological Table of Takeshima" (Press release). Shimane Prefectual Government. Retrieved 2007-02-11. January 28, 1905 Takeshima is officially named during a cabinet meeting, and is put under the jurisdiction of the Oki Islands, Shimane Prefecture.  line feed character in |quote= at position 17 (help)
  12. ^ GrovalSecurity. "Liancourt Rocks / Takeshima / Dokdo / Tokto". GrovalSecurity. Retrieved 2007-02-10. The name 'Dokdo' appears for the first time in the Report of Sim Heungtak, the governor of Ulleung-gun in 1906. 
  13. ^ Lee, Sang-tae. "Dokdo Is Korean Territory". Korean Fundation. Retrieved 2007-02-10. As for Korean documents, the name Dokdo was first found in a report prepared by Ulleung county governor Sim Heung-taek in 1906. 
  14. ^ Kawakami, Kenzo (1996-06). Takashima no Rekisi Chirigaku teki kenkyu(Geography and historical research on Takeshima) (in Japanese). Japan: Kokon Syoin. p. 79. ISBN 4-7722-1856-4. 万治三年または寛文元年の松島渡海というのは、大谷・村川両家が幕府の正式承認の下に、同島におもむくようになった年を意味しているようにも考えられる。(The year 1660 or 1661 is also cinsidered as the year when both House of Ohtani and Murakawa began to land the Matsushima Island(present Takeshima) by permission of the Shogunate.)  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ "The Issue of Takeshima" (Press release). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2004-03. Retrieved 2007-02-11. The measures to incorporate Takeshima into Shimane Prefecture in 1905, through the Cabinet decision and notification by Shimane Prefecture reaffirmed the intention of the Japanese government to claim territorial rights as a modern nation over Takeshima. There were no indications that Japan did not hold territorial rights prior to that, nor were there any counter claims by any other country of territorial rights over Takeshima. In addition, the incorporation of Takeshima was reported in the newspapers and was not undertaken secretly, hence it can be seen to have been implemented validly.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  16. ^ Serita, Kentaro (2002-06). Nihon no Ryodo(Japanese Territory). Japan: Tyukou sousyo. p. 153. ISBN 354063293X. 日本政府はこの領土編入行為を無主地に対する先占行為とは認めておらず、この点に関する日本の主張は開国以前の日本には国際法の適用はないので、当時にあっては、実際に日本で日本の領土と考え、日本の領土として扱い、他国がそれを争わなければ、それで領有するのは十分であったと認められるというものである。(Japanese Government doesn't admit the incorporation as the title by occupation of terra nullius. Japan insist that if she treated Takeshima as a Japanese territory at that time and another country didn't dispute, it is enough to acquisition. Because International Law is not applied before the country is opened to the world.)  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  17. ^ Daijyudo, Kanae (1998-09). Ryodo kizoku no Kokusaihou(International law about territory) (in Japanese). Japan: Toshindo. p. 143. ISBN 978-4887133044. 日本政府による明治38年の領土編入措置と、それに続く国家機能の継続した発現は、十七世紀に、当時の国際法にもほぼ合致して有効に設定されたと思われる日本の権原を、現代的な要請に応じて十分に取替えるものであった。(The incorporation in 1905 and the effective control afterwards according to modern demand are enough to change the title which seems to be acquired effectively by Japan in the 17th century in conformity with the International Law of those days.)  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ Bak, Baegun (2006-08-05). Nihonniyoru tosyosensen no syosennrei. Journal of International Law and Diplomacy (in Japanese). 105-2. Japanese Society of International Law. p. 38. 竹島/独島に対する領域権原を近代国際法に照らして確実なものにするために日本が先占のような追加措置を取ることは、近代国際法の観点からみると論理的に可能なことであり、意義のないことでもない。(It is logically possible to do additional act same as the case of title by occupation for Takeshima to clarify Japanese territorial title based on modern International Law. And, it is not meaningless.) 
  19. ^ Minagawa, Takeshi (1985-03). Kokusaiho kenkyu(Research of International Law) (in Japanese). Japan: Yuhikaku. p. 228. ISBN 4-641-04568-2. 日本の原始的タイトルは存続したものとみなされるべきで、それが、1905年実効的占有(effective possesion)という実体国際法の要求する権原に代替されたのである。(Japanese ancient title should be considered to be continuance. And, the ancient title was substituted to the title by effective possesion in 1905 that is demanded by International Law.)  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ "About Takeshima" (Press release). Shimane Prefectual Government. Retrieved 2007-02-11. Takeshima is part of Okinoshima Town, Oki-gun, Shimane Prefecture 

Meaning of "critical date":In international law the point of time falling at the end of a period within which the material facts of dispute are said to have occurred is usually called the "critical date." It is also the date after which the actions of the parties to a dispute can no longer affect issue. It is exclusionary, and it is terminal. Hence is most frequently resorted to in territorial disputes to indicate the period within which a party should be able to show the consolidation of its title or its fulfillment of the requirement of the doctrine of occupation.[1]