User:T L Miles/NorthernSonghayspeakers

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The Idaksahak people (var.: Dausahaq, Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dawsahaq) are a Berber pastoralist population centered around Menaka and Inékar town in Meneaka Cercle and Talataye in Ansongo Cercle of the Gao Region of northeastern Mali.[1][2][3] They speak the Northern Songhai derived Tadaksahak language.[4] Many also speak Western Tawallammat Tamajaq language, the Tuareg language of southern Gao. The Idaksahak are a former dependant faction of local Tuareg Iwellemmeden, formerly serving as maraboutic (relgious experts) and livestock minders for higher caste Tuareg factions.[4] Despite this history, they predated the Tuareg in the region, and even the Songhay Empire, from which they took their language. The Idaksahak, like the related Igdalan "were among the first Berbers to migrate to sub-Saharan Africa, sometime between the 8th and 9th centuries"[4] and were among the first Muslim groups in the area.[4] They now include both sedentary patastoralists and town dwellers, as well as sesonally nomadic pastoralists, herding cattle, goats, and camels from Mali through southern Algeria and northwest Niger.[1] Transhmance patterns continue to take them into the area of Niger inhabated by the Igdalan related Isawaghan: sedentary Northern Songhay speakers of Ingal Niger. The Malian population of Idaksahak is estimated at 30,000.[1] Idaksahak share with Tuareg a three part caste system of "free masters" (i-dáksahak), "craftspeople" (ʒeem-án) and the "captives/slaves" (ṭaam-én).[3] The name i-dáksahak means "sons of Issac".[1] The Idaksahak are Muslim, although many maintain pre-Islamic beliefs and practices. In Menaka and Ansongo, the Idaksahak live amongst populations of the Igdalan, the Kel Essouk Tuareg, Ihatan Songhay, and Berberiche Arab factions.[4][1][3]


See also[edit]

Tadaksahak language Tuareg

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e David J. Phillips. Peoples on the move: introducing the nomads of the world. William Carey Library, 2001 ISBN 0878083529 pp.146-147
  2. ^ R Christiansen-Bolli. A Grammar of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay Language of Mali: Summary. Leiden University
  3. ^ a b c R Christiansen-Bolli. A Grammar of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay Language of Mali: Introduction. Leiden University
  4. ^ a b c d e CM Benítez-Torres. [www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/38/paper2136.pdf Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology in Tagdal: A Mixed Language] In Selected Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, ed. (2009)

External links[edit]

  • Idaksahak]: a community blog from a Idaksahak community group in Mali.


[1]

[1]


[2]

[2]


Northern Songhay Languages in Mali and Niger A Sociolinguistic Survey File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View by MJ Rueck




Dahoussahak,[3]

Dahoussahak

The Idaksahak also have a history of transhumance patterns to the southeast, taking them into what is now the Ouallam area of Niger.[3]



[4]

  • Cyffer, Norbert (Ed) (2000). Michael J Rueck; Niels Christiansen. Northern Songhay languages in Mali and Niger, a sociolinguistic survey. in Trends in Nilo-Saharan linguistics: proceedings of the 7th Nilo-Saharan linguistics conference, Vienna, Austria, 2-6 September, 1998. Cologne : Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.




Northern Songhay language names are related to the names of the peoples who speak them in Berber fashion. Tadaksahak is spoken by the Idaksahak; Tagdal is spoken by the Igdalen; Tabarog is spoken by the Iberogan; and Tasawaq is spoken by the Issawaghan who also call themselves the Ingalkoyyu.







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Ethnologue considers Tagdal a "Mixed Berber-Songhay language"[5][6][1] while other researchers consider it Northern Songhay.[4] These sources also debate if Tasawaq  is independent of Tabarog.[4]  


External links[edit]


The Igdalen and the Iberogan have for many purposes been treated as one group, and their speech forms are closely related. Nicolaï uses "tihishit" as a common designator for these two speech forms (1981b:306); however, this term is ambiguous. "Tihishit" is a term of Tamajaq origin meaning "the language of the blacks". The Igdalen and Iberogan used it to refer to all Northern Songhay speech forms.



[7]

Tasawaq A language of Niger

ISO 639-3: twq Population 8,000 (1998 SIL). Region Central Niger, Ingal and Teguidda-n-Tessoumt, near Agadez. Language map Niger Alternate names Ingelshi Dialects Similar to Tagdal [tda], Tadaksahak [dsq] of Mali, and Korandje [key] of Algeria. Classification Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern Language use Some also use Hausa [hau] or Tamajaq [ttq]. Comments Shares features of Songai and Tamajaq. Businessmen: salt and date trade; agriculturalists. Muslim.



[8] 27,000 (2000) Nomadic. Called Igalan (pl.), Agdal (sg.). Pastoralists; agriculturalists. Muslim.



Igdalen (who are marabouts of Sanhaja origin and seem to have arrived in the Aïr region around the 11th century).[9]


The Igdalen used to have economic links with the lberogan. (speaking Tabarog), who now live further south as agriculturists R Christiansen-Bolli introduct

Kel Geress, Kel Ferwan, Igdalen (Igdalen, Ikazkazan, Kel Fadey, etc.)

Les Kel Ait rassemblent les Igdalen et les Kel Fadey. Les pre- ... Igdalen et Kel Fadey (I) possèdent certains traits caractéristi- ...

[PDF] Language Contact, Areality, and History: the Songhay Question ... File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View by R Nicolaï - Cited by 1 - Related articles Songhay by tribes such as the Igdalen (who are marabouts of Sanhaja ... it is currently impossible to say whether the Igdalen, Idaksahak, and Isawaghen . Roy: 'Vestiges de Takedda, ancienne capitale des Igdalen, centre minier et caravanier au XIVe siècle', Notes Africaines, no. 29, 1946,



Ancient kingdoms of West Africa: African-centred and ... - Page 508

Dierk Lange - 2004 - 586 pages - Preview ... the Idaksahak and the Igdalen; a third nomadic group, the Iberogan, are black African vassals of the Igdalen.



The peoples of Africa: an ethnohistorical dictionary - Page 235

James Stuart Olson - 1996 - 681 pages - Google eBook - Preview IGDALEN. The Igdalens are a subgroup of the Tuareg* people of Niger and Mali. Known for their religious piety and honesty, the Igdalens are essentially religious groups attached to various Tuareg clans. Ethnologists place their origins .









[10]

Igdalen ne forment pas un groupement politique autonome.

Eparpillés dans plusieurs régions, chaque fraction s'est rattachée à une tribu de l'aristocratie guerrière voisine. On trouve des Igdalen dans l'arrondissement de Tanout comme dans celui de Tchin Tabara- den. Les uns sont devenus dépendants des Immuzurag, les autres des Ikherkheren, tout en conservant leurs caractéristiques culturelles et linguistiques propres. Les Igdalen de la région d'In Gall, qui relèvent de l'autorité du sultan d'Agadez, sont divisés en deux"tribus" : Kel Tofey et Kel Amdit (2). Les premiers forment deux unités distinctes, nomadisant séparément. L'un des groupes, avec le chef général des Kel Tofey, Ghabdwan, vit au sud d'Asawas, à Kokari, non loin du barrage de Tigerwit qui forme une grande étendue d'eau pendant plu- sieurs mois. La seconde fraction Kel Tofey nomadise au Sud de Tegid- da-n-tesemt, autour d'Akrinzigi, Les Kel Amdit vivent en saison sè- che plus au Sud, sur le plateau de grès du Tegama, près du puits de Mazababu


IGDALEN Saison sèche Hivernage Kel Tofey a) Asawas - Kokari Fagoshia Tegidda-n-adragh b) Akrinzigi Tasdefat Kel Amdit Mazababu Tigerwit Asawas






Idaksahak - Google Search

Northern Songhay Languages in Mali and Niger A Sociolinguistic Survey


Ethnologue report for Northern

Christiansen: Some verb morphology features of Tadaksahak... - Google Scholar

Christiansen: Relative clauses in Tadaksahak - Google Scholar

Iberogan - Google Scholar

Northern Songhay Languages in Mali and Niger

Maquette pour le projet “Lexiques d'Afrique”

Maquette pour le projet “Lexiques d'Afrique”

"Trends in Nilo-Saharan linguistics" - Google Search

Iberogan - Google Search

Igdalen - Google Search

Welcome to INGALL

TRACES DE JUDAÏSME EN MILIEU TARGUI.

1.1 General information General information

User:T L Miles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Du sel et des dattes : introduction à l'étude de la communauté d'In Gall et de Tegidda-n-tesemt

Seasonality, climatic fluctuations, and food supplies (Sahelian nomadic pastoral societies)

Rapport de mission d'étude sur les agro-pasteurs Twareg et Buzu de la région de Maradi in Programme de recherches sur la région de Maradi. A. C. C.: Lutte contre l'aridité en milieu tropical.

Language Contact, Areality, and History: the Songhay Question Revisited

The peoples of Africa: an ... - Google Books

Ecology and culture of the pastoral ... - Google Books

Immuzurag - Google Search

  1. ^ a b c CM Benítez-Torres. [www.lingref.com/cpp/acal/38/paper2136.pdf Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology in Tagdal: A Mixed Language] In Selected Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference on African Linguistics, ed. (2009)
  2. ^ a b David J. Phillips. Peoples on the move: introducing the nomads of the world. William Carey Library, 2001 ISBN 0878083529 pp.146-147
  3. ^ a b Catherine Taine-Cheikh. [Les langues parlées au sud Sahara et au nord Sahel http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00456346/]. De l'Atlantique à l'Ennedi (Catalogue de l'exposition « Sahara-Sahel »), Centre Culturel Français d'Abidjan (Ed.) (1989) 155-173
  4. ^ a b c Michael J Rueck; Niels Christiansen. Northern Songhay languages in Mali and Niger, a sociolinguistic survey. Summer Institute of Linguistics (1999).
  5. ^ Ethnologue language tree for Nilo-Saharan,Songhai, Northern
  6. ^ Ethnologue Tagdal: tda
  7. ^ Tasawaq A language of Niger in Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.
  8. ^ Tagdal A language of Niger in Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.
  9. ^ Robert Nicolaï. Language Contact, Areality, and History: the Songhay Question Revisited. in Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 20 Special Volume - Language Contact, Language Change and History Based on Language Sources in Africa edited by Wilhelm J.G. Möhlig, Frank Seidel & Marc Seifert. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe 2009
  10. ^ Edmond Bernus, Suzanne Bernus. Du sel et des dattes: introduction à l'étude de la communauté d'In Gall et de Tegidda-n-tesemt. Etudes Nigeriennes, 31. Centre nigérien de recherches en sciences humaines, 1972. OCLC 248836480