User talk:Richard Keatinge/Gibraltar
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar between 128,000 and 24,000 BCE has been discovered at Gorham's Cave, making Gibraltar the last known holdout of the Neanderthals. Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BCE. Subsequently, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. The Carthaginians and Romans also established semi-permanent settlements. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals. The area later formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania until the Islamic conquest of Iberia in 711 CE. Seven centuries of Moorish control ended when Gibraltar was recaptured by the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1462 as part of the Spanish Reconquista.
After the conquest, King Henry IV assumed the title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the municipal area of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years later Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia who sold it in 1474 to a group of Jewish conversos from Córdoba and Seville in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time the 4,350 Jews were expelled by the Duke as part of the Inquisition. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the hands of the Spanish Crown and Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses today.
On 4 August 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a predominantly Anglo-Dutch force of the Grand Alliance captured the town of Gibraltar. Gibraltar was selected, after abortive attempts elsewhere, for its strategic value, its weak garrison, and as a base to raise Andalucia against the Bourbon king in favour of the Hapsburg claimant to the Spanish throne. Orders were given to respect civilians, and the terms of surrender promised property and religious rights. However, officers lost control and during the following days sailors and marines engaged in widespread looting, ransacking Catholic churches and there were instances of rape. In reprisal, several of the invaders were murdered by the local people, who hid the bodies in wells and cesspits. Order was re-established by shore patrols who punished the offenders, with some of the invading force hanged as examples to encourage the others to desist.
On 5 August, the authorities wrote to the Bourbon king, declaring their loyalty to his cause frustrating one of the objectives of seizing Gibraltar. Two days later, almost all the population departed to the hermitage of San Roque and Algeciras. Several factors influenced the decision including the expectation of a counter attack and the violence during the capture. The subsequent siege failed to dislodge the invading forces and the refugees mostly settled in the Campo de Gibraltar, although some returned to Gibraltar.
Spanish attempts to recapture Gibraltar
Spain attempted to retake Gibraltar in 1727 and most notably in the Great Siege of Gibraltar. This lasted from 24 June 1779 – 7 February 1783 and remains one of the longest sieges endured by the British Armed Forces, as well as being one of the longest continuous sieges in history. The combined Spanish and French fleets blockaded Gibraltar from the sea, while on the land side an enormous army was engaged in constructing forts, redoubts, entrenchments, and batteries from which to attack. The Spanish committed so many resources to the siege, they postponed the planned Invasion of England. The first relief of the siege came in the spring of 1780 when Admiral George Rodney brought reinforcements of 1,052 men and an abundance of supplies. The British continued to resist every attempt to capture Gibraltar by assault but supplies again began to run low. On 12 April 1781 Vice Admiral George Darby's squadron of 29 ships of the line escorting 100 store ships from Britain entered the bay. The Spanish fleet was unable to intercept the relief and frustrated by this failure began a barrage of the town causing great panic and terror among the civilian population. Deliberate targeting of civilians was against the accepted code of conduct in warfare and was to continue for 2 years obliterating any remaining buildings from the Spanish period. Unable to starve the garrison out the French and Spanish attempted further attacks by land and sea. Learning of plans for the Grand Attack on 27 November 1781, the British garrison made a surprise sortie routing the besieging infantry in their trenches and delaying the planned assault for some time.
On 13 September 1782 the Bourbon allies launched their great attack; 5190 fighting men both French and Spanish aboard ten of the newly engineered 'floating batteries' with 138 heavy guns, as well as 18 ships of the line, 40 Spanish gunboats and 20 bomb-vessels with a total of 30,000 sailors and marines. They were supported by 86 land guns and 35,000 Spanish and French troops (7,000–8,000 French) on land intending to assault the fortifications once they had been demolished. The 138 guns opened fire from floating batteries in the Bay and the 86 guns on the land side, directed on the fortifications after weeks of preparatory artillery fire. The garrison replied with red-hot shot to set fire to and sink the attacker's floating batteries and warships in the Bay; three of the floating batteries were destroyed,. The other batteries were scuttled by the Spanish, 719 men on board the ships (many of whom drowned) were casualties.
In Britain, the Admiralty planned a major relief of Gibraltar. In September 1782 a large fleet left Spithead under Richard Howe, arriving off Cape St Vincent on 9 October. The following evening a gale blew up, scattering the Spanish and French fleet allowing Howe to sail unopposed into Gibraltar. A total of 34 ships of the line escorted 31 transport ships which delivered supplies, food, and ammunition. The fleet also brought the 25th, 59th, and 97th regiments of foot bringing the total number of the garrison to over 7,000 Howe then sailed out and fought an indecisive battle with the combined allied fleet before withdrawing to Britain in line with his orders. The siege was continued for some months longer, but in the spring of 1783 a preliminary peace agreement brought the cessation of hostilities. Finally, in February of 1783 the siege was lifted.
- Choi, Charles (2006). "Gibraltar". MSNBC.COM. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 50–51. ISBN 1-86227-103-8.
- Maurice Harvey (1996). Gibraltar. A History. Spellmount Limited. pp. 51–52. ISBN 1-86227-103-8.
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Hesse's force, including the Dutch Marines and a detachment of Catalans, was just under two thousand strong
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011.The British units in the landing forces were: Fox's Marines ...the Royal Regiment of Marines...Sanderson's Marines...Villier's Marines
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 94. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. As the fleet sailed north toward Toulon, Hesse persuaded Rooke to attempt raising Barcelona in the archduke's cause by landing troops there
- William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1990). /books?id=zmKTPwAACAAJ The Rock of the Gibraltarians: A History of Gibraltar Check
|url=value (help). Gibraltar Books. p. 94. ISBN 9780948466144. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
Consideration was given to what other project might be undertaken by Rooke's powerful fleet of fifty-two English and ten Dutch ships of the line. In the debate, three reasons were given for selecting Gibraltar as the target: the place was indifferently garrisoned; its possession would be of great value during the war; and its capture would encourage the Spaniards in southern Spain to declare in favour of the Hapsburgs.
- George Hills (1974). Rock of contention: a history of Gibraltar. Hale. p. 165. Retrieved 7 April 2011.Ormonde issued a proclamation. "They were come not to invade or conquer any part of Spain or to make any acquisitions for Her Majesty Queen Anne...but rather to deliver Spaniards from the mean subjection into which a small and corrupt party of men have brought them by delivering up that former glorious monarchy to the dominion of the perpetual enemies of it, the French" He laid particular stress on the respect that was to be shown to priests and nuns - "We have already ordered under pain of death of officers and soldiers under our command not to molest any person of what rank or quality so ever in the exercise of their religion in any manner whatsoever.
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 99. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Article V promised freedom of religion and full civil rights
- George Hills (1974). Rock of contention: a history of Gibraltar. Hale. p. 175. Retrieved 7 April 2011."Great disorders", he found, "had been committed by the boats crews that came on shore and marines; but the General Officers took great care to prevent them, by continually patrolling with their sergeants, and sending them on board their ships and punishing the marines
- G. T. Garratt (March 2007). Gibraltar and the Mediterranean. Lightning Source Inc. p. 44. ISBN 9781406708509. Retrieved 7 April 2011.One has but to read the books left to us by the sailors to realize the peculiar horror of the life between-decks. Cooped up there, like sardines in a tin, were several hundreds of men, gathered by force and kept together by brutality. A lower-deck was the home of every vice, every baseness and every misery
- Jackson, Sir William, Rock of the Gibraltarians, p100-101
- Rock of Contention. A History of Gibraltar. George Hills (1974). London: Robert Hale. pp. 173-174. ISBN 0-7091-4352-4
- David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011.But some of the sailors, before they could be recalled to their ships broke loose in the town and plundered the inhabitants
- Allen Andrews (1958). Proud fortress; the fighting story of Gibraltar. Evans. p. 35. Retrieved 7 April 2011.a few of them hanged as rioters after the sacking. One Englishman had to throw dice with a Dutchman to determine who should hang pour encourager les autres. They stood under the gallows and diced on a drum. The Englishman threw nine to the Dutchman's ten, and suffered execution before his mates.
- Frederick Sayer (1862). The history of Gibraltar and of its political relation to events in Europe. Saunders. p. 115. Retrieved 4 February 2011. Cite error: Invalid
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- David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011. So the damage was done and the chance of winning the adherence of the Andalusians was lost.
- David Francis (1 April 1975). The First Peninsular War: Seventeen-Two to Seventeen-Thirteen. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN 9780312292607. Retrieved 7 April 2011. ...plundered the inhabitants. Partly on account of this, partly because they expected Gibraltar to be retaken soon, all the inhabitants except a very few...chose to leave
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011. Although Article V promised freedom or religion and full civil rights to all Spaniards who wished to stay in Hapsburg Gibraltar, few decided to run the risk of remaining in the town. Fortresses changed hands quite frequently in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The English hold on Gibraltar might be only temporary. When the fortunes of war changed, the Spanish citizens would be able to re-occupy their property and rebuild their lives. ... Hesse's and Rooke's senior officers did their utmost to impose discipline, but the inhabitants' worst fears were confirmed: women were insulted and outraged; Roman Catholic churches and institutions were taken over as stores and for other military purposes ...; and the whole town suffered at the hands of the ship's crew and marines who came ashore. Many bloody reprisals were taken by inhabitants before they left, bodies of murdered Englishmen and Dutchmen being thrown down wells and cesspits. By the time discipline was fully restored, few of the inhabitants wished or dared to remain.
- Allen Andrews (1958). Proud fortress; the fighting story of Gibraltar. Evans. p. 54. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson (1987). The Rock of the Gibraltarians: a history of Gibraltar. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780838632376. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- Ernle Dusgate Selby Bradford (1972). Gibraltar: the history of a fortress. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 101. Retrieved 16 April 2011. To the citizen of the 20th Century, accustomed or the civilian casualties in war, and dulled to the annihilation of whole cities (or even nations), the horrified reaction of Gibraltar's garrison to the shelling of the town and its inhabitants may seem a trifle naive. But it must be remembered that in those days there was still a code of conduct in warfare, and some elementary humanity in those who waged it.
- Monti p. 140
- Monti p. 138
- Monti p. 132
- Montero p. 356
- 35,000 allied troops camped outside, Chartrand pg. 76
- Montero pp. 365-366
- Bajas españolas de las baterías flotantes del ataque a Gibraltar el 13 de septiembre de 1782. Gaceta de Madrid. Encontrado por Todo a Babor. Retrieved on 2010-03-11
- Syrett p.103
- Syrett p.104-05
- Chartrand p.23