Victor Tausk (1900)
|Born||March 12, 1879
|Died||July 3, 1919
Vienna, Republic of German-Austria
|Cause of death||Suicide|
|Known for||On the Origin of the "Influencing Machine" in Schizophrenia|
Victor Tausk (also Viktor; March 12, 1879 – July 3, 1919) was a pioneer psychoanalyst and neurologist. A student and a colleague of Sigmund Freud, he was the earliest exponent of psychoanalytical concepts with regard to clinical psychosis and the personality of the artist.
During the First World War, he was recruited as a military doctor. The originality of his contribution to military medicine is contained in his theories on psychoses and his understanding of the phenomenon of desertion (Tréhel, G., 2006). Building up on his war experience, he wrote on war-induced psychoses while the other psychoanalysts were working on war neurosis. He took part in the debate on the disorder within the Society (Tréhel, G., 2011).
In 1919, after he had stepped out from Freud's shadow, Tausk published a paper on the origin of a delusion common to a wide array of schizophrenic patients, namely that an alien device, malignant and remote, had influenced their thoughts and their behavior. This device was referred to as the Influencing Machine and the paper was called On the Origin of the "Influencing Machine" in Schizophrenia. It is the most well known of his publications, reaching beyond his own field of research into others, such as literary theory, for example. This work influenced many later psychoanalytic thought, including Heinz Kohut in his work the 'Analysis of the Self', where narcissistic regression showed great similarities with psychotic fantasmatic configurations. Many of his other works include 'On Masturbation' and the 'The Psychology of the War Deserter' all of which have generated much controversy and discussion, arguably due to his experience within the psychoanalytic community. However Paul Roazen has argued that Tausk's legacy is still ongoing, and that his influence has not been properly acknowledged by the psychological, or psychoanalytical communities.
Freud and death
On the morning of July 3, 1919 after Helene Deutsch had stopped Tausk’s treatment after Freud had demanded it, and after a complicated relation with Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salomé, Tausk committed suicide by tying a curtain braid around his neck, then placing a pistol against his right temple and firing, hanging himself as he fell.
Freud wrote to Salomé that "I confess that I do not really miss him; I had long realised that he could be of no further service; indeed that he constituted a threat to the future."
- Victor Tausk. Sexuality, War and Schizophrenia: Collected Psychoanalytic Papers (Philanthropy and Society) (1990) ISBN 0-88738-365-3
Books on Viktor Tausk
- Paul Roazen. Brother Animal: The Story of Freud and Tausk ISBN 0-8147-7395-8
- Kurt R. Eissler. Victor Tausk's Suicide (1983) ISBN 0-8236-6735-9
- Kurt R. Eissler. Talent and genius: The fictitious case of Tausk contra Freud (1971)ISBN 0-8021-0089-9
- Gilles Tréhel. Victor Tausk (1879-1919) et la médecine militaire, L'information Psychiatrique, 2006, vol. 82, n°3, p. 239-247.
- Gilles Tréhel. Victor Tausk (1879-1919) : une théorisation sur les psychoses de guerre, Perspectives Psy, 2011, vol. 50, n°2, p. 162-175.
- Clark, Ronald W (1980). Freud: The man and the cause. Cape and Weidenfeld & Nicolson., p286
- Arnold D. Richards - The Jewish World of Sigmund Freud, p170
- Cited in Clark (1980), p. 399[full citation needed]