A member of an old noble (szlachta) magnate family from the Poznań region, Taczanowski is considered one of the most important European zoologists of the nineteenth century. Trained in Paris, he worked at museums in Vienna, Berlin, Paris and London and was curator of the zoological department of the Warsaw University Museum from 1862 (when he succeeded Feliks Paweł Jarocki) until his death. Taczanowski took part in an expedition to Algeria with Antoni S. Waga (1866–67) and wrote several significant studies including Birds of Poland (1882) and Ornithology of Peru (1884-86).
Species named after him include Taczanowski's tinamou (Nothoprocta taczanowskii ), the Junin flightless grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii ), the mountain paca (Agouti taczanowskii ), Taczanowski's gudgeon (Ladislavia taczanowskii ), and Taczanowski's dwarf boa (Tropidophis taczanowskyi ).
- "Les Aranéides de la Guyane française," Horae Societatis entomologicae Rossicae (1871)
- "Les Aranéides de la Guyane française," Horae Societatis entomologicae Rossicae (1873)
- "Les Aranéides du Pérou. Famille des Attidés" (1879)
- Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Taczanowski", p. 260).
- History of the Museum and Institute of Zoology
- (in Polish) http://forumakad.pl/archiwum/2004/12/27-gwiazdy_i_meteory.htm
- http://salticidae.org/salticid/diagnost/0-author/taczanowski.htm (has a picture)
- http://home.rochester.rr.com/thecaiques/classic_caique_articles.htm (has more details of his work)