Wilhelm, German Crown Prince
Wilhelm, German Crown Prince (Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst, 6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) was the eldest child of the last German Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II and his wife Empress Augusta Victoria, and the last Crown Prince of the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the death of his grandfather Emperor Frederick III, Wilhelm became crown prince at the age of six, retaining that title for more than 30 years until the fall of the empire on 5 November 1918. During World War I, he commanded the 5th Army from 1914 to 1916 and was commander of Army Group German Crown Prince for the remainder of the war. Crown Prince Wilhelm became Head of the House of Hohenzollern on 4 June 1941 following the death of his father and held the position until his own death on 20 July 1951.
Wilhelm was born on 6 May 1882 in the Marmorpalais of Potsdam in the Province of Brandenburg. He was the eldest son of Wilhelm II, the last German Kaiser (Emperor) (1859–1941), and his first wife, Princess Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (1858–1921).
When he was born, his great-grandfather, Kaiser Wilhelm I, was the emperor and his grandfather, Crown Prince Frederick, was heir to the throne, making Wilhelm third in line to the throne. He was the eldest of the Kaiser's seven children and his birth sparked an argument between his parents and grandmother. Before Wilhelm was born, his grandmother had expected to be asked to help find a nurse, but since her son did everything he could to snub her, the future Wilhelm II asked his aunt Helena to help. His mother was hurt and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, who was the younger Wilhelm's great-grandmother, furious. When his great-grandfather and grandfather both died in 1888, six-year-old Wilhelm became the heir-apparent to the German and Prussian thrones.
Wilhelm was a supporter of association football, then a relatively new sport in the country, donating a cup to the German Football Association in 1908 and thereby initiating the Kronprinzenpokal (now Länderpokal), the oldest cup competition in German football. The German club BFC Preussen was also originally named BFC Friedrich Wilhelm in his honour.
In 1914, the Kaiser ordered the construction of Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam for Prince Wilhelm and his family. The Schloss was loosely inspired by Bidston Court in Birkenhead, England, resembling a Tudor manor. Completed in 1917, it became the main residence for the Crown Prince for a time.
World War I
Wilhelm had been active in pushing German expansion, and sought a leading role on the outbreak of war. Despite being only thirty-two and having never commanded a unit larger than a regiment, the German Crown Prince was named commander of the 5th Army in August 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I. However, under the well-established Prussian/German General Staff model then in use, inexperienced nobles who were afforded commands of large army formations were always provided with (and expected to defer to the advice of) experienced chiefs of staff to assist them in their duties. As Emperor, Wilhelm's father instructed the Crown Prince to defer to the advice of his experienced chief of staff Konstantin Schmidt von Knobelsdorf.
In October 1914 Wilhelm gave his first interview to a foreign correspondent and the first statement to the press made by a German noble since the outbreak of war. He denied promoting military solutions to diplomatic problems, and said this in English:
"Undoubtedly this is the most stupid, senseless and unnecessary war of modern times. It is a war not wanted by Germany, I can assure you, but it was forced on us, and the fact that we were so effectually prepared to defend ourselves is now being used as an argument to convince the world that we desired conflict."
From August 1915 onwards, Wilhelm was given the additional role as commander of the Crown Prince's Corps. In 1916 his troops began the Verdun Offensive, a year long effort to destroy the French armies that would end in failure. Wilhelm relinquished command of the 5th Army in November of that year, but remained commander of the Crown Prince's Corps for the rest of the war.
After the outbreak of the German Revolution in 1918, both Emperor Wilhelm II and the Crown Prince signed the document of abdication. On 13 November, the former Crown Prince went into exile and was interned on the island of Wieringen (now part of the mainland), near Den Helder in the Netherlands. In the fall of 1921, Gustav Stresemann visited Wilhelm and the Crown Prince voiced his interest in returning to Germany, even as a private citizen. After Stresemann became chancellor in August 1923, Wilhelm was allowed to return after giving assurances that he would no longer engage in politics. He chose 9 November 1923 for this, which infuriated his father, who had not been informed about the plans of his son and who felt the historic date to be inappropriate.:11–12
In June 1926, a referendum on expropriating the former ruling Princes of Germany without compensation failed and as a consequence, the financial situation of the Hohenzollern family improved considerably. A settlement between the state and the family made Cecilienhof property of the state but granted a right of residence to Wilhelm and Cecilie. This was limited in duration to three generations.:9–12 The family also kept the ownership of Monbijou Palace in Berlin, Oels Castle in Silesia, and Rheinsberg Palace until 1945.
Wilhelm broke the promise he had made to Stresemann to stay out of politics. Adolf Hitler visited Wilhelm at Cecilienhof three times, in 1926, in 1933 (on the "Day of Potsdam") and in 1935. Wilhelm joined the Stahlhelm which merged in 1931 into the Harzburg Front, a right-wing organisation of those opposed to the democratic republic.:13
The former Crown Prince was reportedly interested in the idea of running for Reichspräsident as the right-wing candidate against Paul von Hindenburg in 1932, until his father forbade him from acting on the idea. After his plans to become president had been blocked by his father, Wilhelm supported Hitler's rise to power.:13
When Wilhelm realized that Hitler had no intention of restoring the monarchy, their relationship cooled. Upon his father's death in 1941, Wilhelm succeeded him as head of the House of Hohenzollern, the former German imperial dynasty. He was approached by those in the military and the diplomatic service who wanted to replace Hitler, but Wilhelm turned them down. After the ill-fated assassination attempt on 20 July 1944, Hitler nevertheless had Wilhelm placed under supervision by the Gestapo and had his home at Cecilienhof watched.:11–15
In January 1945, Wilhelm left Potsdam for Oberstdorf for a treatment of his gall and liver problems. His wife Cecilie fled in early February 1945 as the Red Army drew closer to Berlin, but they had been living apart for a long time. At the end of the war, Wilhelm's home, Cecilienhof, was seized by the Soviets.:15–16 The palace was subsequently used by the Allied Powers as the venue for the Potsdam Conference.:16
At the end of the war, Wilhelm was captured by French Moroccan troops in Baad, Austria and was interned as a (World War I) war criminal. Transferred to Hechingen, Germany, he lived for a short time in Hohenzollern Castle under house arrest before moving to a small five-room house at Fürstenstraße 16 in Hechingen where he died on 20 July 1951, of a heart attack. Three days later, his opponent in the Battle of Verdun, Marshal Philippe Pétain, died in prison in France.
Family and children
Wilhelm married Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20 September 1886 – 6 May 1954) in Berlin on 6 June 1905. After their marriage, the couple lived at the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin in the winter and at the Marmorpalais in Potsdam. Cecilie was the daughter of Grand Duke Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1851–1897) and his wife, Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia (1860–1922). Their eldest son, Prince Wilhelm of Prussia, was killed fighting for the German Army in France in 1940. However, during the early stages of his marriage the crown prince had a brief affair with the American opera singer Geraldine Farrar, and he later had a relationship with the dancer Mata Hari.
Their children and male-line grandchildren are:
- Prince Wilhelm of Prussia (1906–1940), who renounced his succession rights in 1933. He married 1933 Dorothea von Salviati and had issue:
- Princess Felicitas of Prussia (1934–2009)
- Princess Christa of Prussia (born 1936)
- Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia (1907–1994); married 1938 Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia and had issue:
- Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (1939–2015)
- Prince Michael of Prussia (1940–2014)
- Princess Marie Cécile of Prussia (born 1942)
- Princess Kira of Prussia (1943–2004)
- Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1944–1977)
- Prince Christian-Sigismund of Prussia (born 1946)
- Princess Xenia of Prussia (1949–1992)
- Prince Hubertus of Prussia (1909–1950); married 1941 Baroness Maria von Humboldt-Dachroeden, 1943 Princess Magdalena Reuss, had issue:
- Princess Anastasia of Prussia (born 1944)
- Princess Marie-Christine of Prussia (1947–1966)
- Prince Frederick of Prussia (1911–1966); married 1945 Lady Brigid Guinness and had issue:
- Prince Frederick Nicholas of Prussia (born 1946)
- Prince Andrew of Prussia (born 1947)
- Princess Victoria of Prussia (born 1952)
- Prince Rupert of Prussia (born 1955)
- Princess Antonia of Prussia (born 1955)
- Princess Alexandrine of Prussia (1915–1980), called "Adini", had Down syndrome.
- Princess Cecilie of Prussia (1917–1975); married Clyde Kenneth Harris on 21 June 1949, and had issue.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 6 May 1882 – 15 June 1888: His Royal Highness Prince Wilhelm of Prussia
- 15 June 1888 – 10 August 1919: His Imperial and Royal Highness The German Crown Prince, Crown Prince of Prussia
- 11 August 1919 – 20 July 1951:
- Wilhelm Prinz von Preußen (official)
- 11 August 1919 – 4 June 1941: His Imperial and Royal Highness The German Crown Prince, Crown Prince of Prussia (in pretense)
- 4 June 1941 – 20 July 1951: His Imperial and Royal Majesty The German Emperor, King of Prussia (in pretense)
Decorations and awards
- Order of the Black Eagle, Knight with Collar
- Order of the Red Eagle, Grand Cross with Crown
- Order of the Prussian Crown, Grand Cross
- Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Grand Commander's Cross
- Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves
- Iron Cross, 2nd and 1st Class
- Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen: Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, Cross of Honour 1st Class with Swords
- Bremen, Lübeck, Hamburg: Hanseatic Crosses
- Ernestine duchies:
- Hesse and by Rhine:
- War Honor Cross for Heroic Deeds
- War Merit Cross
- Oldenburg: House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Grand Cross with Crown
- Reuss: War Merit Cross
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Order of the White Falcon, Grand Cross with Swords
- Austria-Hungary: Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Grand Cross, 1898
- Belgium: Royal Order of Leopold, Grand Cordon
- Denmark: Order of the Elephant, Knight, 6 May 1900
- Kingdom of Greece: Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross
- Kingdom of Italy: Order of the Annunciation, Knight
- Empire of Japan: Order of the Chrysanthemum, Grand Cordon
- Netherlands: Order of the Netherlands Lion, Grand Cross
- Norway: Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, Grand Cross with Collar
- Ottoman Empire:
- Kingdom of Portugal:
- Qajar dynasty: Neshan-e Aqdas, 1st Class
- Qing dynasty: Order of the Double Dragon, Class I Grade II
- Kingdom of Romania: Order of the Crown of Romania, Grand Cross
- Russian Empire:
- Kingdom of Serbia: Royal Order of the White Eagle, Grand Cross
- Siam: Order of the Royal House of Chakri, Knight 1st Class
- Spain: Order of the Golden Fleece, Knight, January 1900 (invested in Berlin on 2 March 1900 by the Duke of Veragua on behalf of King Alfonso XIII of Spain; the insignia was the same as those which were worn by the Emperor Wilhelm I)
- Sweden: Royal Order of the Seraphim, Knight, 27 July 1888
- United Kingdom:
- Queen Victoria's Family, A Century of Photographs, Charlotte Zeepvat
- "Kick it like Kronprinz" (in German) Spiegel Online. Retrieved 11 June 2009
- "Hidden Wirral Myths & Legends Tours". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
- Chief of Staff: Napoleonic wars to World War I, David Zabecki
- Elter page 74
- Wiegand page 3
- Müller, Heike; Berndt, Harald (2006). Schloss Cecilienhof und die Konferenz von Potsdam 1945 (German). Stiftung Preussische Schlösser und Gärten. ISBN 3-910068-16-2.
- The Life Of Crown Prince William by Klaus Jonas, 1961 pp. 214-30.
- "Preussen.de - Kronprinz Wilhelm". Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Preussen.de - 50. Todestag der Kronprinzessin Cecilie". Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat (1918), Genealogy p.1
- Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1913 (1913) pages 68-69
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Preußen (1908), Genealogy p.1
- "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 468. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- "Court Circular". The Times (36036). London. 11 January 1900. p. 7.
- "Court Circular". The Times (36080). London. 3 March 1900. p. 11.
- "Toison Espagnole (Spanish Fleece) - 20th century" (in French), Chevaliers de la Toison D'or. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 71
- Shaw, p. 416
- Andreas Elter (April 2003), Die andere Front: Pressepolitik in den USKriegen des 20. Jahrhunderts (PDF) (in German), Cologne, archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011, retrieved 5 April 2009
- Karl Henry von Wiegand (1915), Current misconceptions about the war, 1123 Broadway, New York: The Fatherland corporation, inc., retrieved 5 April 2009,
Copyright 1914, United Press ... 20 November
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to William, German Crown Prince.|
- The memoirs of the Crown Prince of Germany
- The Life of Crown Prince Wilhelm
- Interview in Fox Movietone News 1932
- Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). 1922. .
- Newspaper clippings about Wilhelm, German Crown Prince in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Wilhelm, German Crown PrinceBorn: 6 May 1882 Died: 20 July 1951
|Titles in pretence|
as German Emperor
and King of Prussia
|— TITULAR —
King of Prussia
4 June 1941 – 20 July 1951
Reason for succession failure:
Formed from VII Army Inspectorate
| Commander, 5th Army
2 August 1914 – 30 November 1916
General der Infanterie Ewald von Lochow
| Commander, Army Group German Crown Prince
1 August 1915 – 10 November 1918
Karl von Einem