Abdullah Quilliam

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Abdullah Quilliam
Liverpool article01 body02.jpg
Born 10 April 1856
Liverpool, United Kingdom
Died 23 April 1932(1932-04-23) (aged 76)
Bloomsbury, London, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Other names عبد الله كويليام
William Henry Quilliam
Henri Marcel Leon
Haroun Mustapha Leon

William Henry Quilliam (10 April 1856[1][2][3] – 23 April 1932), who changed his name to Abdullah Quilliam and later Henri Marcel Leon or Haroun Mustapha Leon, was a 19th-century convert from Christianity to Islam, noted for founding England's first mosque and Islamic centre.

Early life[edit]

William Henry Quilliam was born at 22 Eliot Street, Liverpool, on 10 April 1856, to a wealthy local family. He spent most of his childhood on the Isle of Man and was brought up as a Methodist. He was educated at the Liverpool Institute and the Manx King William's College.[4]

He became a solicitor in 1878, specialising in criminal law, and practising at 28 Church Street, Liverpool.[5] He was described at one point by the Liverpool Weekly Courier as the "unofficial Attorney-General of Liverpool". He defended suspects in many high-profile murder cases. He married Hannah Johnstone in 1879.[4] At this time, Quilliam was also a proponent of the temperance movement in the UK.[6]

Conversion to Islam[edit]

Quilliam converted to Islam in 1887 after visiting Morocco to recover from an illness. Quilliam purchased numbers 8, 11 and 12 Brougham Terrace, Liverpool, following his conversion, through a donation from Nasrullah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan. 8 Brougham Terrace became the Liverpool Muslim Institute, the first functioning mosque in Britain. He also opened a boarding school for boys and a day school for girls, as well as an orphanage, Medina House, for non-Muslim parents who could not look after their children but agreed for them to be brought up as Muslims. In addition, the Institute hosted educational classes covering a wide range of subjects, and included a museum and science laboratory.[4] It opened on Christmas Day, 1889.[7]

In 1889, he first published The Faith of Islam, which was concerned with dawah to Islam and its key principles.[7] Initially, 2000 copies were published, but a further 3000 copies were produced in 1890.[4] Quilliam also published The Crescent, a weekly account of Muslims in Britain, and Islamic World, a monthly publication with a worldwide audience.[4] In 1890, Quilliam orchestrated protests against the showing of Hall Caine's play, Mahomet. 1891 saw the first public Muslim burial in Liverpool, of Michael Hall, a former Methodist preacher who converted to Islam.[5]

The 26th and final Ottoman Caliph, Abdul Hamid II, granted Quilliam the title of Sheikh al-Islam for the British Isles. Also, the Emir of Afghanistan recognised him as the Sheikh of Muslims in Britain and he was appointed as Persian Vice Counsel in Liverpool by the Shah.[4]

A number of notables converted to Islam as a result of Quilliam's preaching. They included professors Nasrullah Warren and Haschem Wilde, as well as Resched P. Stanley, the former mayor of Stalybridge. It is estimated that around 600 people converted to Islam in the UK as a direct result of Quilliam's work.[4]

He travelled extensively and received many honours from the leaders of the Islamic world. He had contact with English-speaking West African Muslims and toured the region's coastal cities on his way to Lagos to attend the consecration of the Shitta Bey Mosque in 1894.[8]

Quilliam's work in Liverpool stopped when he left England in 1908 in advance of being struck off as a solicitor.[9][10] His son swiftly disposed of the property that had been used as a mosque and Islamic centre. Without Quilliam's influence and funding, the Muslim community in Liverpool dispersed.

He had returned to the UK by December 1914 under the name of H. M. Leon.[11] He spent much of his time at Onchan on the Isle of Man. He died in Taviton Street, Bloomsbury, London in 1932,[12] and was buried in Brookwood Cemetery near Woking. The prominent Anglo-Muslims Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall (who each translated the Qur'an), and Lord Headley were later buried near him.

Political views[edit]

Quilliam argued that Muslims should not fight Muslims on behalf of European powers.[13] He denounced British foreign policy in Sudan[14] and called for a worldwide Caliphate.[15] His political views and allegiance to the Ottoman Caliph led some to denounce him as a traitor.[16]

Legacy[edit]

His legacy is principally maintained by the Abdullah Quilliam Society, which was founded in 1996. The society aims to restore the Liverpool Muslim Institute on Brougham Terrace, and is completing Phases Three and Four of the restoration.[17] The society has been assisted by academics including Ron Geaves, formerly of Liverpool Hope University, and Mehmet Seker of Dokuz Eylül University. The society also offers university student accommodation.[18]

Quilliam, originally The Quilliam Foundation, a think tank aimed at challenging extremist Islamist ideologies, launched in 2008,[19][20] was named after Abdullah Quilliam.[21]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Abdullah Quilliam Society website". Abdullah Quilliam Society. 
  2. ^ "Forgotten champion of Islam: One man and his mosque". The Independent. London. 2 August 2007. Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. 
  3. ^ "Brief Biography of William Henry Quilliam". www.isle-of-man.com. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "About Abdullah Quilliam". Abdullah Quilliam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "Abdullah Quilliam Timeline". Abdullah Quilliam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  6. ^ Bano, Rahila (25 April 2012). "The legacy of Victorian England's first Islamic convert". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b "Cairo Speech – 1928". Abdullah Quilliam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  8. ^ Singleton, Brent D. (September 2009) "'That Ye May Know Each Other': Late Victorian Interactions between British and West African Muslims," Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs vol. 29, issue 3, pp. 387–403.
  9. ^ Straits Times 1 July 1932 "The statutory committee of the Law Society found that when he was acting for a woman who was petitioning for a divorce on the grounds of cruelty and adultery, Quilliam instigated and connived at the act of a man who induced the husband to commit adultery and presented to the court a case which he knew to be false."
  10. ^ http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=EP19320611.2.48.6 gives details of the divorce case of Martha May & Enoch Griffiths Thompson
  11. ^ http://www.wokingmuslim.org/work/bm-soc1.htm (a Henri Mustapha Leon, aged 55, living in St Pancras, London, appears in the Census of April 1911)
  12. ^ "Straits Times 1 July 1932". 
  13. ^ John Wolffe (1997). Religion in Victorian Britain: Culture and Empire. St. Martin's Press. p. 341. ISBN 978-0719051845. 
  14. ^ In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful! Peace be to all True-Believers to whom this shall come! Know ye, O Muslims, that the British Government has decided to commence military and warlike operations against the Muslims of the Soudan, who have taken up arms to defend their country and their faith. And it is in contemplation to employ Muslim soldiers to fight against these Muslims of the Soudan. For any True Believer to take up arms and fight against another Muslim is contrary to the Shariat, and against the law of God and his holy prophet. I warn every True-Believer that if he gives the slightest assistance in this projected expedition against the Muslims of the Soudan, even to the extent of carrying a parcel, or giving a bite of bread to eat or a drink of water to any person taking part in the expedition against these Muslims that he thereby helps the Giaour against the Muslim, and his name will be unworthy to be continued upon the roll of the faithful. Signed at the Mosque in Liverpool, England, this 10th day of Shawwal, 1313 (which Christians erroneously in their ignorance call the 24th day of March 1896), W.H. ABDULLAH QUILLIAM, Sheikh-ul-Islam of the British Isles.[Source: The Crescent, 25 March 1896, Vol. VII, No. 167, p. 617; original punctuation and spelling retained.] cited from Religion in Victorian Britain: Culture and Empire p. 341
  15. ^ In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful! Peace be to all the faithful everywhere! "O True-Believers, fear God with His true fear; and die not unless ye also be True-Believers. And cleave all of you unto the covenant of God, and depart not from it; and remember the favour of God towards you." Sura 3, "The Family of Imran," Ayat, 103 All praise be to God Who, in His unlimited goodness, has favoured us with the gift of the True religion of Islam, and Who has ordered the brethren to be united, and declared this to be His law in the before-quoted Ayat of the Holy and Imperishable Koran! Among Muslims none should be known as Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Ajem, Afghans, Indians or English. They are all Muslims, and verily the True-Believers are brethren. Islam is erected on the Unity of God, the unity of His religion, and the unity of the Muslims. History demonstrates that the True-Believers were never defeated while they remained united, but only when disunion crept into their ranks. At the present time, union is more than ever necessary among Muslims. The Christian powers are preparing a new crusade in order to shatter the Muslim powers, under the pretext that they desire to civilise the world. This is nothing but hypocrisy, but armed as they are with the resources of Western civilisation it will be impossible to resist them unless the Muslims stand united in one solid phalanx. O Muslims, do not be deceived by this hypocrisy. Unite yourselves as one man. Let us no longer be separated. The rendezvous of Islam is under the shadow of the Khalifate. The Khebla of the True-Believer who desires happiness for himself and prosperity to Islam is the holy seat of the Khalifate. It is with the deepest regret that we see some persons seeking to disseminate disunion among Muslims by publications issued in Egypt, Paris and London. "Verily, they are in a manifest error." If their object – as they allege it – be the welfare of Islam, then let them reconsider their action and they will perceive that instead of bringing a blessing to Islam their actions will have a contrary effect, and only further disseminate disunion where it is – alas that it should be said – only too apparent. We fraternally invite these brethren to return their allegiance, and call them to the sacred name of Islam to re-unite with the Faithful. Muslims all! Arsh is under the standard of the Khalifate. Let us unite there, one and all, and at once! Given at the Mosque at Liverpool, this 5th day of Dhulkada, 1313, which Christians in their error call the 20th day of April 1896 W.H. ABDULLAH QUILLIAM, Sheikh-ul-Islam of the British Isles.[Source: The Crescent, Vol. VII, No. 171, 22 April 1896, pp. 681–682, original punctuation and spelling retained, pagination indicated in square brackets in the text.] cited from Islam in Victorian Britain: The Life and Times of Abdullah Quilliam pp. 173–4
  16. ^ Geaves, R. (2010). Islam in Victorian Britain: The Life and Times of Abdullah Quilliam. Markfield, Kube Publishing., p. 102-103
  17. ^ "Completed Works". Abdullah Quilliam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  18. ^ "About". Abdullah Quilliam Society. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 
  19. ^ Bowcott, Owen; Butt, Riazat (1 March 2008). "Ex-Islamists start moderate thinktank" – via The Guardian. 
  20. ^ ""Ex-extremists call for 'Western Islam'"". 
  21. ^ Nawaz, Maajid. Radical. W.H. Allen, London: (2012): p. 327

External links[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Lewis, Philip (1994). Islamic Britain: Religion, Politics, and Identity among British Muslims: Bradford in the 1990s. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-861-7. 
  • Singleton, Brent D. (2009). The Convert's Passion: An Anthology of Islamic Poetry from Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain. Rockville, MD: Wildside. ISBN 1-4344-0354-8.  (Includes poems by Quilliam and others)
  • Geaves, Ron (2010) Islam in Victorian Britain, The Life and Times of Abdullah Quilliam, Kube Publishing,