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Until the mid-17th century, Polish forces were divided into permanent units (Polish: wojsko kwarciane) and supplemental units (Polish: wojsko komputowe or wojsko suplementowe), which were created in the time of military needs. In 1652 this distinction ceased, and both types of forces were merged into wojsko komputowe.
Personnel number (which was a kept a state secret) varies, because often the commanders (hetmans) paid for additional manpower from their own purses. During peacetime, the Commonwealth komput army numbered about 12,000 for the Crown (Poland proper) and 6,000 for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. During wartime it was increased to around 24,000–40,000 for the Crown and 8,000-22,000 for Lithuania.
In addition, wojsko kwarciane was supplemented with peasant-based recruits of piechota wybraniecka and from 1653, piechota łanowa, registered Cossacks (until 1699), pospolite ruszenie, royal guard, armies of magnates and cities, and wojsko ordynackie.
In 1717 the Silent Sejm introduced under Russian pressure komput values of 18,000 for Crown and 6,200 for Lithuania. This marked the beginning of Russian control over Commonwealth armies, which would last until the May Constitution of Poland.