Wojsko komputowe

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Wojsko komputowe (Polish pronunciation: [ˈvɔjskɔ kɔmpuˈtɔvɛ], comput army) is a type of military unit used in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 17th century and the 18th century.

Until the mid-17th century, Polish forces were divided into permanent units (Polish: wojsko kwarciane) and supplemental units (Polish: wojsko komputowe or wojsko suplementowe), which were created in the time of military needs. In 1652 this distinction ceased, and both types of forces were merged into wojsko komputowe.

The etymology of the name is from Latin: computatio (account, calculation), and Old Polish komput—an army budget which was voted for by the Commonwealth parliament, the Sejm.

Wojsko kwarciane was composed from various units, both Commonwealth-born soldiers and foreign mercenaries. The Diet voted to pay for certain amount of infantry and cavalry.

Personnel number (which was a kept a state secret) varies, because often the commanders (hetmans) paid for additional manpower from their own purses. During peacetime, the Commonwealth komput army numbered about 12,000 for the Crown (Poland proper) and 6,000 for the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. During wartime it was increased to around 24,000–40,000 for the Crown and 8,000-22,000 for Lithuania.

In addition, wojsko kwarciane was supplemented with peasant-based recruits of piechota wybraniecka and from 1653, piechota łanowa, registered Cossacks (until 1699), pospolite ruszenie, royal guard, armies of magnates and cities, and wojsko ordynackie.

In 1717 the Silent Sejm introduced under Russian pressure komput values of 18,000 for Crown and 6,200 for Lithuania. This marked the beginning of Russian control over Commonwealth armies, which would last until the May Constitution of Poland.