From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Developer(s)Jouni Malinen and others
Initial releaseApril 5, 2003 (2003-04-05)
Stable release
2.10[1] / January 16, 2022; 13 months ago (2022-01-16)
Written inC
Operating systemCross-platform
TypeWLAN tools

wpa_supplicant is a free software implementation of an IEEE 802.11i supplicant for Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, QNX, AROS, Microsoft Windows, Solaris, OS/2 (including ArcaOS and eComStation)[2] and Haiku.[3] In addition to being a WPA3 and WPA2 supplicant, it also implements WPA and older wireless LAN security protocols.


Features include:[4]

  • WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK ("WPA-Personal", pre-shared key)
  • WPA3[5]
  • WPA with EAP ("WPA-Enterprise", for example with RADIUS authentication server)
  • RSN: PMKSA caching, pre-authentication
  • IEEE 802.11r
  • IEEE 802.11w
  • Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)

Included with the supplicant are a GUI and a command-line utility for interacting with the running supplicant. From either of these interfaces it is possible to review a list of currently visible networks, select one of them, provide any additional security information needed to authenticate with the network (for example, a passphrase, or username and password) and add it to the preference list to enable automatic reconnection in the future.[6]

The graphical user interface is built on top of the Qt library.

wpa_supplicant can authenticate with any of the following EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) methods: EAP-TLS, EAP-PEAP (both PEAPv0 and PEAPv1), EAP-TTLS, EAP-SIM, EAP-AKA, EAP-AKA', EAP-pwd, EAP-EKE, EAP-PSK (experimental), EAP-FAST, EAP-PAX, EAP-SAKE, EAP-GPSK, EAP-IKEv2, EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2, and LEAP (requires special functions in the driver).[6]

Vulnerability to KRACK[edit]

wpa_supplicant was especially susceptible to KRACK, as it can be manipulated to install an all-zeros encryption key, effectively nullifying WPA2 protection in a man-in-the-middle attack.[7] Version 2.7 fixed KRACK and several other vulnerabilities.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Index of /releases". w1.fi. 2022-01-16. Retrieved 2022-02-28.
  2. ^ "wpa_supplicant". Retrieved 2020-09-03.
  3. ^ haiku/wpa_supplicant, Haiku, 2019-03-17, retrieved 2020-03-07
  4. ^ "wpa_supplicant(8) - Linux man page". Retrieved 2020-03-07.
  5. ^ "wpa_supplicant". wiki.archlinux.org. Retrieved 2021-05-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ a b "Linux WPA Supplicant (IEEE 802.1X, WPA, WPA2, RSN, IEEE 802.11i)". w1.fi. Retrieved 2014-07-04.
  7. ^ "Key Reinstallation Attacks disclosure website". KRACK Attacks. Retrieved 26 September 2018. Linux's wpa_supplicant v2.6 is also vulnerable to the installation of an all-zero encryption key in the 4-way handshake.

External links[edit]