Wushantou Reservoir

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Wushantou Reservoir
烏山頭水庫
Coral Lake Tainan from airplane window.JPG
Wushantou Reservoir is located in Taiwan
Wushantou Reservoir
Location of Wushantou Reservoir
烏山頭水庫 in Taiwan
Country Taiwan
Location Liujia, Guantian Districts, Tainan
Coordinates 23°12′20.5″N 120°23′24.88″E / 23.205694°N 120.3902444°E / 23.205694; 120.3902444Coordinates: 23°12′20.5″N 120°23′24.88″E / 23.205694°N 120.3902444°E / 23.205694; 120.3902444
Status In use
Construction began 1920
Opening date 1930
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Embankment Dam
Impounds Guantian Creek、Zengwun River (by tunnel)
Height 56 m (184 ft)
Length 1,273 m (4,177 ft)
Spillways Guantian Creek
Spillway type Gated overflow, service
Spillway capacity 1,500 m3/s (53,000 cu ft/s)
Reservoir
Creates Wusanto Reservoir
Total capacity 154,158,000 m3 (5.4440×109 cu ft)
Catchment area 58 km2 (22 sq mi)
Surface area 13 km2 (3,200 acres)
Power Station
Installed capacity 50 MW
Annual generation 438,000 KWh

Wushantou Reservoir (Chinese: 烏山頭水庫; pinyin: Wūshāntóu Shuǐkù), sometimes spelled Wushanto or Wusanto, is a reservoir and scenic area located in Lioujia District and Guantian District of Tainan, Taiwan. It is also referred to as Coral Lake (珊瑚潭; Shānhútán) due to its zigzagging shoreline. The reservoir was designed by engineer Yoichi Hatta and was the largest in Asia at the time of its completion in 1930.[1]

Overview[edit]

Construction of the Wusanto Reservoir began in 1920 and was completed in 1930. The goal of the project was to provide irrigation for over 100-thousand hectares of farmland in the Chianan area.[2] After construction of the reservoir, the irrigation plain became an important producer of rice for consumption in Taiwan and Japan, with three rice harvests possible each year.[3]

Engineering[edit]

The reservoir was built in conjunction with the Chianan Canal, also designed by Hatta.[2] At the time of its completion, Wusanto Reservoir was the largest reservoir in Asia and the third largest in the world.[1] Construction of the reservoir and of the Wusanto Dam used an uncommon semi-hydraulic fill technique, where fine-grained material is placed at the end of an embankment and then washed into its desired position using jets of water; this is a variant of the hydraulic fill technique.[4] Wusanto Reservoir is the only project constructed with the semi-hydraulic fill technique that is still in use anywhere in the world. This process was expensive and time-consuming, but produced a dam which has proven resistant to Taiwan's severe seismic activity.[3]

Scenic area[edit]

Today, the Wusanto Reservoir Scenic Area is a popular tourist destination in Tainan. The area includes a memorial and museum for Yoichi Hatta. Cherry blossom viewing is a popular event in spring. The area is also known for its abundant native flora and fauna.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yang, S.D. "Hatta, Yoichi". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Potential World Heritage Sites in Taiwan: Wushantou Reservoir and Jianan Irrigation Waterways". Bureau of Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Liu, Alexandra. "Country Travel, New Style". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Graham, Andrew. "World Wide Web Pages for Dam Design". Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  5. ^ "Wusanto Reservoir Scenic Area (Coral Lake)". Retrieved 18 November 2013.