Zinc ion battery
A zinc ion battery or Zn-ion battery (abbreviated as ZIB) uses zinc ions (Zn2+) as the charge carriers. Specifically, ZIBs utilize Zn as the anode, Zn-intercalating materials as the cathode, and a Zn-containing electrolyte.
In 2011, Feiyu Kang's group showcased for the first time the reversible Zn-ion insertion into the tunnel structure of alpha-type manganese dioxide (MnO2) host used as the cathode in a ZIB. Until now, several cathode materials have been explored for ZIB, for example gamma-, delta-type MnO2, and copper hexacyanoferrate. In 2017, researchers announced another prototype zinc-ion battery that has high reversibility, rate, and capacity without dendrite formation. The device used a zinc metal anode, a vanadium oxide cathode and an aqueous electrolyte, all non-toxic materials. After 1,000 cycles it retained 80% of its capacity. Manufacture does not require ultra-low humidity. More specifically the cathode is made of a vanadium oxide bronze pillared by interlayer Zn2+ ions and water (Zn0.25V2O5⋅nH2O). The zinc ions intercalate at the anode under charge with a capacity up to 300 mAh g−1. The cell achieved an energy density of ∼450 Wh l−1.
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