Access to knowledge movement
The Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.
Use by campaign groups
Many different groups refer to the A2K movement. Consumers International is particularly prominent, and defines the movement as:
the umbrella term for a movement that aims to create more equitable public access to the products of human culture and learning. The ultimate objective of the movement is to create a world in which educational and cultural works are accessible to all, and in which consumers and creators alike participate in a vibrant ecosystem of innovation and creativity.
These goals are of interest to a broad coalition of consumer groups, NGOs, activists, Internet users and others. However for many of them, coming to grips with the issues involved in the A2K movement can be daunting. These issues, including copyright and patent law reform, open content licensing, and communications rights, often involve legal and technological concepts that even specialists find difficult.
CP Tech (now Knowledge Ecology International) say: "the A2K (Access to Knowledge) movement takes concerns with copyright law and other regulations that affect knowledge and places them within an understandable social need and policy platform: access to knowledge goods."
Declarations and draft treaties
The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities from 2003 is a major declaration reflecting the goals of the movement in relation to academic publishing.
The wider goals of Access to Knowledge are embodied in a draft treaty, emerging from a call from Brazil and Argentina for a development agenda for the World Intellectual Property Organization. The treaty is intended to ease the transfer of knowledge to developing nations, and to secure the viability of open innovation systems all over the world.
Human rights debate
Access to knowledge and science is protected by Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The article balances the right of access with a right to protection of moral and material interests:
Article 27 Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
A2K academics argue that “material interests” are not simply equivalent to current intellectual property provisions, not least because these rights are saleable and transferable, and therefore not “inalienable”. The right to access is ultimately the more important part of the right. Current levels of IP protection seem out of balance with Article 27, according to A2K theorists:
“... in a very real sense, rights delayed are rights denied. Had access to oral rehydration therapy and second-generation vaccine technologies been delayed for twenty years ... three million children would have died. Even for less life- and-death technologies, a twenty-year delay works an immense limitation on enjoyment of the right. For cultural works, the situation is even worse; protection lasts longer than a human lifetime.”
The A2K term is also used in academic discourse and literature. Bloomsbury Academic have produced a series on issues in Brazil, Egypt and India; while UCT Press have published an overview of the issues in Africa.
An academic overview of the issues can be found in 'Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property', published in 2010.
- Comparison of open-access journals
- Open access (publishing)
- Freedom of information
- Free culture movement
- Libre knowledge
- Open knowledge
- Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
- A2K Network
- The Right to Science and Culture, Lea Shaver, p55
- Ronaldo Lemos; Pedro Nicoletti Mizukami; Ronaldo Lemos; Bruno Magrani; Carlos Affonso Pereira de Souza (2010), Access to Knowledge in Brazil, Bloomsbury Academic
- Lea Shaver; Nagla Rizk (2010), Access to Knowledge in Egypt, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1-84966-008-2, 1849660085
- Lea Shaver; Ramesh Subramanian (2011), Access to Knowledge in India, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1849665261, 1849665265
- Armstrong, Chris Dr (2010), Access to Knowledge in Africa, UCT Press
- Gaelle Krikorian; Amy Kapczynski (2010), Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property, MIT Press
- Draft Text of the A2K Treaty
- New, William. "Experts Debate Access to Knowledge", IP Watch, Feb. 15, 2005. Accessed April 23, 2007.
- "Convergence of movements to fight IPRs on information", Seedling, 2005. Accessed April 23, 2007.
- Consumer Project on Technology's A2K resources
- Seed's Freedom from IPR
- Yale Law School A2K Research Program
- A2K Brazil
- A2K Derechos Digitales (Chile) (Spanish)
- Bibliotheca Alexandrina's A2K Portal (English/Arabic)
- Consumers International's A2Knetwork.org
- Jack Balkin's "What is Access to Knowledge?"
- Yochai Benkler's "The Idea of Access to Knowledge" (PDF)
- Peter Suber's Open Access Overview
- Access to knowledge in Africa: the role of copyright
- Access to knowledge in Brazil
- Access to knowledge in Egypt
- Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property, edited by Gaëlle Krikorian and Amy Kapczynski
- Access to Knowledge - A Guide for Everyone, Consumers International