The Agreement had the goal to address and appease concerns of the southern Sudan liberation and succession movement, as the First Sudanese Civil War grew costly in lives and resources to the northern Sudanese government and southern population. The Addis Ababa Agreement's establishment of the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region gave a degree of autonomy. 
A decade of relative peace followed, though the Addis Ababa Agreement failed to dispel the tensions that had originally caused civil war. The Addis Ababa Agreement proved to be only temporary respite. Resource infringements and marginalisation by the north led to increased unrest in the south starting in the late 1970s.