|Born||30 September 1925|
|Died||31 May 2011|
With his brother Jonas Mekas, he founded the seminal magazine Film Culture, as well as the Film-Makers’ Cooperative and was associated with the Fluxus art movement. He made several short films that showed his essentially comic and anarchic spirit, culminating in the feature Hallelujah the Hills in 1963, which played the Cannes Film Festival of that year and is now considered a classic of American film. He was a key member of the New American Cinema of the 1960s.
The Early Years
Adolfas was born on a farm in Semeniskiai, Lithuania, in September 1925, on the last day of the month, a market day, the son of Elzbieta and Povilas Mekas and brother to sister Elzbieta and Povilas, Petras, Kostas and Jonas. Adolfas was the youngest in the family.
At 14 while still in Lithuania he saw his first film Captain Blood with Errol Flynn, the cinemagic of which he would never forget. In July 1944, toward the end of World War II when Lithuania was occupied by both Soviet and German troops, Adolfas, and his brother Jonas left Lithuania by train, fearing retaliation for their participation in the underground. Near Hamburg they were taken from the train and put into a forced labor camp. After World War II ended they were sent from one DP camp to another across Germany. While in the displaced persons camps in Germany he attended classes in literature and theatre arts and philosophy at the University in Mainz, where he also wrote and published short stories, novels, and tall-tale books for children. Having been refused entry into Israel, New Zealand, and Canada, Mekas was sent as a refugee to the United States, where he landed with his brother at the end of 1949.
USA – The beginning
In the spring of 1950 he purchased a 16mm Bolex camera and began photographing life around him while he wrote more than 50 scripts and attended every film screening offered at the Museum of Modern Art, Cinema 16, Thalia, Stanley, and other venues for films of any kind, supporting himself with a variety of jobs from dishwasher to foreman in a Castro Convertible factory. He was drafted into the Army during the Korean War, assigned to the Signal Corps, and sailed for France in September 1951. On his return to the United States from Europe in 1953, he continued writing and filming and also began organizing, with his brother Jonas, the American Film House. Though the brothers approached many independent filmmakers, none were interested in collaborating on the project. Adolfas and Jonas persisted for over a year to find a location in Manhattan, but without success. In 1954 they abandoned the idea of the American Film House and with the money they had borrowed for the Film House project started a film society, which they called the Film Forum. “We showed films at public schools and at Carl Fischer Hall on 57th Street, wherever we could, until we went bankrupt in the middle of the second film series later in the year just in time to start Film Culture magazine, the first issue of which came out in December 1954.” AM
Film Culture magazine would be an outlet for anyone who had something to say about film.
“The brothers little realized at the time that they were actually elevating American culture to new heights, and marshaling a level of film criticism that has never been equaled since in our country.” -P. Adams Sitney. Adolfas served as editor of Film Culture until 1968.
Together with his brother in the early 50’s, Adolfas wrote, directed and photographed a number of films that were never finished, including his first script in 1950 - Lost, Lost, Lost, Lost later to become Lost, Lost, Lost, and in 1951, Grand Street – both films documented the fate of displaced persons, old and new immigrants to Brooklyn. In 1953, together with Jonas, he wrote, directed and edited a somber romance called Silent Journey, in which he played a principal role. In 1955, with Jonas and Edouard de Laurot, he began Film Essay, a spoof of American avantgarde film of that time.
During those years, he made short trips to Canada to visit friends and find material for the novel he was writing, A Canadian Romance. In 1958 he left New York to spend a year in Oaxaca, Mexico. Living on $1 a day, he was free to write, and he wrote short stories, later published, began other longer works, notably his diaristic George The Man, and was able to finish the screenplay for Hallelujah the Hills. In 1959 he returned to the States and the daily struggle to live and create and express the needs of the growing movement of independent and avantgarde filmmakers in New York.
On September 28, 1960, hosted by Adolfas, brother Jonas and producer Lew Allen, a group of 20 independent filmmakers met at the Producers Theatre on West 16th Street and by unanimous vote bound themselves into the free and open organization of the New American Cinema. The second meeting took place on September 30 at the Bleecker Street Cinema and the first draft of the Statement of Aims was read, discussed and approved, and later published in Film Culture magazine. Subsequently, a third and fourth meeting took place, leading to the establishment in 1961 of the Film-makers’ Co-op - a distribution organization for the dissemination of independent, experimental and avantgarde films. The New York group included among others, Lionel Rogosin, Shirley Clarke, Robert Frank, Maya Deren, Peter Bogdanavitch and Dan Talbot.
USA - The Middle Years
In 1961 brother Jonas began shooting Guns of the Trees. Adolfas assisted him in all stages of production, writing and editing, and played one of the leads in the film. Other players were Ben Carruthers, Frances Stillman and Argus Speare Juilliard. The controversial film was considered to be a “poetic-political manifesto.”
In 1963 Adolfas’ film Hallelujah The Hills was the surprise smash hit of the Cannes Festival. Subsequently it was invited to 27 film festivals, including the First New York Film Festival, London Festival, Montreal Film Festival, Mannheim Film Festival and the Bombay Film Festival; it won the Silver Sail at the Locarno Festival, was invited to a Command Screening for the Royal Family at Buckingham Palace and had a 15-week run at the Fifth Avenue cinema in New York. Time magazine called it “... the weirdest, wooziest, wackiest screen comedy of 1963.” Jean-Luc Godard wrote in Cahiers du Cinema, “Hallelujah proved clearly that Adolfas is someone to be reckoned with. He is a master in the field of pure invention, that is to say, in working dangerously – ‘without a net.’ His film, made according to the good old principle – one idea for each shot – has the lovely scent of fresh ingenuity and crafty sweetness.”
In 1964 Adolfas was hired as post production coordinator and editor of the independent comedy drama Goldstein, which had been co-directed by Ben Manaster and Philip Kaufman. Adolfas created a tour-de-force Jewish fable, edited as a fugue. Cannes Festival ’64.
The same year Adolfas edited sound and film footage taken by brother Jonas of a performance of The Brig, directed by Judith Malina. Selected by the New York Film Festival, London Festival, Moscow and others. It took First prize at the Venice Festival in the documentary category. “...one of the more remarkable films in the entire fest (NY Film Festival ‘64) is the Jonas and Adolfas Mekas film version of The Living Theatre’s ‘The Brig.’ This filmed-on-the-stage version of a play....has a vitality as film which is unique and does in cinema terms what the seekers for new form in plays and novels are attempting.” Variety, Sept 30, ’64.
In March of 1964 he met his wife to be, Pola Chapelle. They were separated before their marriage by the production of his second feature film, The Double Barreled Detective Story, but never again during their long lifetime together. A rough and tumble nineteenth century town was built just outside Johnstown, Pennsylvania, for the location of the filming of The Double Barreled Detective Story. The screenplay was based on a Mark Twain short story which starred Hurd Hatfield and Greta Thyssen. In spite of the extraordinary performance of Hurd Hatfield, who played two parts in the movie, there were problems with the production from the start, and Adolfas never got to do a final cut. The producers took the film out of his hands and refused to release it. Nonetheless, with a little help from his friends, he was able to whisk a print to the Venice Film Festival of 1965. “The Double Barreled Detective Story is authentic MarkTwainesque with all the rustic humor of the 1880’s....Mekas shows he has a way with parody and he gets disarmingly innocent performances from his cast.” Variety.
In the same year Adolfas directed Pola Chapelle in a short parody of Italian art films of the time, written by Peter Stone for the Broadway show Skyscraper which starred Julie Harris and Charles Nelson Reilly. Paul Sorvino played opposite Pola in the three-minute film which won kudos from the critics. “.... a priceless film sequence satirizing Italian movies, for some of the heartiest laughs of the evening.” Nadel, NY World Telegram. “....there is a film sequence made by Adolfas Mekas: a very funny parody of an Italian movie, in Italian, complete with English subtitles and a projector that goes ‘zzzzzzz.” Julius Novick, Village Voice.
After his marriage in 1965 and for the rest of the 60’s, Adolfas wrote and hustled his scripts to agents and producers while working as an editor and/or post production coordinator on various independent films, including the soft-core flics of Joe Sarno, ABC-TV’s Wild World of Sports, and a few TV musical extravaganzas. He was encouraged by Howard Hausman of the William Morris Agency, who had seen the future of cinema in Adolfas’ first film Hallelujah The Hills and made more than a few attempts at getting Adolfas’ scripts into the hands of independent producers who would understand their uniquely different style. Although three of his screenplays remained at Warner Brothers for a few years, under consideration, none were ever produced.
In 1967, with a very tight budget, Adolfas made a 16mm b&w film from his own script – Windflowers, Elegy for a Draft Dodger. “....No frills, no Gipsy violin effects, no second movement of Aranjuez’s concerto – and it is thereby, poignant. It is the other side of Vietnam. The stubbornness of a silent young man who is running away....who simply wanted to live.” Cahiers du Cinema, Dominique Noguez.
Shortly after the completion of Windflowers, Adolfas was contacted by Governor Harold E. Hughes of Iowa and his staff. After a personal interview with the Governor, he was given the job of creating promotional commercials for Hughes’ campaign for the United States Senate. He had no experience in the genre, but the challenge was enticing and he spent the summer of 1967 filming Harold Hughes as he stumped the Iowa cornfields. He produced 35 TV commercials for Hughes’ election to the Senate. Harold Hughes won.
In 1968 Adolfas wrote, directed, and starred in a 3-minute short entitled Interview with the Ambassador from Lapland. It was photographed by brother Jonas, with assistance from Shirley Clarke on sound. Pola Chapelle produced. “In these 3 minutes Mekas is Swift, the horrible and admirable Swift of the ‘Modest Proposal.’ One really must admit that Mekas has made the USA a bit less loathsome.” Cahiers du Cinema, DN. (Nota Bene: Jonas sometimes claims authorship of this short film, calling it the Time Life Vietnam Newsreel.)
In 1969 Adolfas photographed and edited Fishes in Screaming Water a catfilm produced by Pola Chapelle for the First International CatFilm Festival – INTERCAT ’69 – which she founded. For the 2nd International Catfilm Festival in 1973, he made the award winning How to Draw A Cat.
He edited and subtitled Companeras and Companeros in 1970 – A feature documentary, shot in Cuba by David and Barbara Stone. He edited three versions: for United States release, for European release, for Cuban release. That same year he cut and edited a film by Yoko Ono, 360 legs, in Up Your Leg.
In 1972, assisted by Pola Chapelle, Adolfas completed a film which documented the autobiographical journey of his return to Lithuania after a 27-year absence. Going Home was invited to the New York Film Festival and many other festivals that year. It was part of the Conference on Visual Anthropology at Temple University in 1974 and chosen by the Museum of Modern Art to be screened in its Anthropological Cinema exhibit, which toured internationally from 1975 to 1977.
The Bard Years
On July 3, 1971 Adolfas received a teaching contract from Bard College. Soon after, he began organizing the young Film Department. At first denied tenure, he began a campaign in pursuit of it, believing that if he were given tenure, the Film Department would be tenured. Armed with letters from colleagues in the film world and x-students, he was successful, and in 1979, tenure was granted him. He and Pola, young son Sean and Mamacat moved to the Hudson Valley, where he would dedicate himself to sharing his passion for the magic of film with the eager and talented young people of the pastoral Bard College. Down The Road, a nearby pub became their after hours seminar room.
However, only a very small budget was available to the Bard Film Department. And the department continued as the “orphan in the storm” for many years. Not deterred, never frustrated, once a year Adolfas rented a truck, and together with Pola, he scoured the labs of his goodnatured film friends in New York City whose donations of reels, split reels, cores, viewers, projectors and occasionally a moviola, were carried back to Bard’s Carriage House – the Bard Film Center of the early years. The underfunding of the department worked to energize Adolfas and his students in innovative ways, e.g., to raise funds for senior projects in film, he held lunchtime auctions outside the dining commons on campus. The film department was small – more than three graduates was rare in the early years; but unceasingly active and always visible, the dynamite center of the Bard campus. Adolfas brought to the Bard Film Department some of the most noted independent and experimental filmmakers, including, Bruce Baillie, Ernie Gehr, Andrew Noren, Barry Gerson, Peter Hutton and Peggy Ahwesh and film historians and theorists Paul Arthur, P. Adams Sitney. John Pruitt, and guest faculty – friends including Ken Jacobs, Sidney Peterson, Shirley Clarke and George Kuchar. The Bard Film Department grew in stature to become one of the most respected film departments in the nation. P. Adams Sitney has written that “what came to be known as the People’s Film Department was his (Adolfas’) theater of hijinks; he surprised even himself with his enormous didactic gifts, his startling administrative skill and his unceasing fount of comic invention. His own fractured education and his nearly total disregard for academic decorum made him the ideal professor. Nowhere in the archive of film is there an invented character who could come near the brilliant, lovable, outrageous mischief that consistently turned his classrooms into arenas of magic. He taught generations how to see and act.”
St. Tula, the Patron Saint of Cinema
In the summer of 1971, visiting Italy after his first trip back to the home he had left behind in Lithuania, St. Tula made her appearance in Adolfas’ life. When, in Porto Santo Stefano, he first saw her representation, it was clear that she was the Patron Saint of Cinema. He had no name for her at the time, but snapped a photo and displayed it in the Film Department of Bard College. Shortly after, written under her photo in the Carriage House, was seen: “St. Tula loves your film. Even if no one else does.” The name stuck. And the altar was built.
In addition to Chairing the Film Department and teaching film courses until 2004, in 1981 he co-founded the Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts at Bard College and directed the MFA program from ’83 to ’89. He also taught film courses at the School of Visual Arts in New York City, and was a visiting lecturer at many institutions around the country.
Adolfas Mekas died in the early morning of May 31, 2011. By his bedside was his treatment for the fantasy documentary film he would make on the life and death by fire of the Neapolitan poet, philosopher, and socalled heretic [Giordano Bruno]. He called Bruno, the first Beatnik.
- "Lost, Lost, Lost" (1950) with brother Jonas, unfinished
- "Grand Street" (1951) with brother Jonas, unfinished
- "Silent Journey" (1953) with brother Jonas, unfinished
- "Antifilm #2" (1953)
- "Inca" (1954) lost
- "Film Essay" (1955) with brother Jonas, unfinished
- "Sunday Junction" (1958) with brother Jonas, unfinished
- "Guns of the Trees" (1961)
- "Susquehanna" (1961) unfinished
- "Hallelujah The Hills" (1963)
- "Goldstein" (1964) editor
- "The Brig" (1964)
- "The Double Barreled Detective Story" (1965)
- "Skyscraper" (1965)
- "The Swap and How They Make It" (1966) editor & post production coordinator
- "Trailer for The Swap and How They Make It" (1966) hot and cool versions
- "The Love Merchant" (1966) editor
- "Mimi Benzell" (1966)
- "Building for the Future" (1966)
- "A Matter of Baobab" (1966)
- "Step Out of Your Mind" (1966) editor
- "Windflowers – Elegy for a Draft Dodger" (1967)
- "Hawaii Ho!" (1968) editor and post production coordinator
- "Interview with the Ambassador from Lapland" (1968)
- "Sweet Victory" (1968)
- "Fishes in Screaming Water" (969) editor
- "Companeros and Companeras" (1970)
- "First Growth" (1970)
- "Those Memory Years" (1970) editor
- "A Weekend With Strangers" (1970) editor
- "Up Your Leg" (1970) editor
- "A Science Fiction Film in the Latter Twentieth Century" (1971) Production Manager
- "Going Home" (1972)
- "How to Draw a Cat" (1973) editor
Published short stories, screenplays, and articles
Trys Broliai (Three Brothers). Stories for children. Giedra, 1946, in Lithuanian.
Is Svetimo Krasto (From a Foreign Country). Stories for children. Giedra, 1947, in Lithuanian.
Knyga Apie Karalius ir Zmones (A Book About Kings and People). Collected short stories. Patria, 1947, in Lithuanian; published again by Humanitas in 1994.
Une Reverence. Poems in prose. Zvilgsniai, 1948, in Lithuanian.
Proza I. Collected short stories. Zvilgsniai, 1949, in Lithuanian.
Proza II. Collected short stories. Gabija, 1951, in Lithuanian. (from 1945-52 published numerous literary and journalistic articles in various Lithuanian periodicals
Chapter XV. (Excerpt from a novel.) Bread&, No 1, 1958.
“A Letter from Mexico or a film between two Mafias” Film Culture - No. 20 – p. 72
Soldiers Fought Bravely to Enter the City. (Short story) Bread&, No 2, 1962; Motive, Vol XXII, No.3, 1962
Hallelujah les Collines (screenplay of “Hallelujah the Hills”) L’Avant Scene, No. 64, 1966.
The Father, the Son and a Holy Cow by Adolfas Mekas, 1999 Hallelujah Editions 2005
Nailing the Coffin, by Adolfas Mekas and Jonathan Shipman, 1981 Hallelujah Editions 2005
When the Turtles Collapse by Adolfas Mekas and Pola Chapelle, 1999 Hallelujah Editions 2005
Idylls of Semeniskiai – translation of Lithuanian epic poem by Jonas Mekas Hallelujah Editions 2007
“In August of 2009…” 222 autobiographies de Robert Kaplan by his friends – page 469. Association Locus Solus, 2011
Mekas, Adolfas. "A Letter From Mexico Or A Film Between Two Mafias." Film Culture 20 (1959): 72-79. Print.
School of Visual Arts. School of Visual Arts Course Catalogue. New York: Visual Arts, 1974-75. Print.
“The Astronauts” Mademoiselle, January 1962
"Girl Tree" (Talk of the Town) The New Yorker, Dec. 8, 1962, New York
“Adolfas déchaîneé” par Michel Patenaude Objectif 63, October 1963, Montreal
“Le prince et le barbouillé” par Gerald Godin Le Nouvelliste, October 8, 1963, Trois-Rivières
“Apropos de Cannes” by Nelly Kaplan Film Comment, 1963, Vol 1 No 5
“Protest und Anklage abseits der hohlen Traumfabrik” by Wolfgang Moser, 19-20/10/63, Mannheimer Morgen
“Mekas” by Alain Pontaut La Presse, 5 Aout 1963, Montreal.
“Hallelujah the Hills” by Michael F. Feiner The Montreal Star, August 5, 1963, Montreal
“Experimentation and Entertainment” by Carol Brightman Long Island Press, October 1963
"Situation II du Cinema Américain, Adolfas Mekas" by Jean-Luc Godard
"Cahiers du Cinema", Tome XXV. No. 150-151 Dec. 1963, Paris
“Venetian Hits” by Penelope Gilliatt. The Observer Weekend Review, Sept 6, 1964, London.
“Films” by Phillip Oakes The Sunday Telegraph, Sept. 9, 1964, London.
“Rawness of Reality Animates Movie Version of The Brig” by Kevin Thomas Los Angeles Times, 8/28/65
"The Brig," by Gene Moskowitz. Variety, Sept. 9, 1964. New York.
“Venice Applauds The Brig; Story of US Marine Prison” by Cynthia Grenier, N Y Herald Tribune, 9/9/64, Paris
“The Brig” by Howard Thompson The New York Times, Sept. 21, 1964
“Rages and Outrages” by Archer Winsten The New York Post, Sept. 21, 1964
“Venice” by Tom Milne. Sight and Sound, Autumn 1964 London.
“Swedes Dig Brig” Variety, Aug. 18, 1965, New York.
“Nuevo Cine Americano en Knoekk-le-Zoute” by Raymond Borde. Nuestro Cine, No 38 1965, Madrid
“Bleecker Street Cinema Bulges” by Archer Winsten The New York Post, April 20, 1966
“Brig Cruelty Beyond Belief” by Ann Guarino The News, April 20, 1966, New York
“Scorpio Rising, Brig Offer Study in Contrast” by Alton Cook, NY World-Telegraph & Sun, 4/20/66, New York
“Films” by Andrew Sarris The Village Voice, April 21, 1966, New York
“The Current Cinema” by Brendan Gill The New Yorker, April 23, 1966, New York.
“The Brig” by F. William Howton Film Society Review, May 1966.
“Scorpio Rising and The Brig” by Edward Lipton The Film Daily, July 13, 1966 New York
“Double-Barreled Detective Story” by Gene Moskowitz Variety, Sept. 8, 1965, New York
“Low Budget Film has its High Points” by Clifford Terry Chicago Tribune, Jan. 3, 1966
"The DBDS” by Eleanor Keen Chicago Sun-Times, Jan. 5, 1966
"No Barrel of Laughs Here" by Ann Marsters Chicago's American, Jan. 4, 1966
"A Double-Barreled Misfire" by Sam Lesner Chicago Daily News, Jan. 3, 1966
"Mekas' Western" by Y.B. Le Monde, 23/24 avril 1967, Paris
“Mekas' Western" Combat, 16 avril 1967, Paris
"Mekas' Western" by Eric Leguebe Le Parisien Libere, 21 avril 1967, Paris
"Western Mekas d'Adolfas Mekas" by Pierre Ajame Les Nouvelles Litteraires 4/20/67
”Mekas Western" by Pierre Mazars Figaro, May 3, 1967, Paris
"Film-maker Mekas Here for Windflowers Debut" by William Blum Cincinnati Enquirer, 2/13/68
"Screen: The Death of a Draft Dodger" by Renata Adler The New York Times, 2/23/68
"Pitfalls to Film-making" by Frances Taylor Long Island Press, Feb. 25, 1968
“Cannes" by Richard Roud Sight and Sound, Vol. 32. No. 3. 1963, London
"Bardot's Posterior OK But Not Peter Beard's" by Frank Morris Globe and Mail, 2/1/64, Toronto
"Whacky, Off-Beat" by J.S. The Montreal Star, Jan. 4, 1964
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Gene Moskowitz. Variety, May 15, 1963, New York.
"Cannes, " by Richard Roud The Guardian, May 30, 1963, London.
"Where the Hell Are We?" Time, Vol. 82, No. 24 Dec. 13 1963, New York
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Eugene Archer The New York Times, Dec. 17, 1963
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Robert Benayoun La Cinematographie Française, 18 mai 1963, Paris.
"Viva le Colline!" by Robert Benayoun Il Nuovo Spettatore Cinematografic, Anno V. No. 3. Giugno 1963, Roma.
"Hallelujah the Hills," by Marcel Martin Cinema 63, No. 77, Juin 1963, Paris
"Coffee, Brandy & Cigars" by Herman G. Weinberg Film Culture No. 29, 1963 New York
"A Funny and Lyrical American Film" by Richard Roud Manchester Guardian Weekly. June 5, 1963 Paris
"Hallelujah the Hills" by B.S. Cahiers du Cinema, Tome XXV No. 145 Juillet 1963, Paris
“Pomeriggio per il Nuovo Mondo" by Giuseppe Curonici Giornale del Popolo, 24/7/63, Lugano
"Hallelujah the Hills, Una Spassosa Galoppata nel Regno dell' Assurdo" Corriere del Ticino 25 luglio 1963, Lugano.
’’Burlesque Américain," by Rene Dasen Nouvelle Revine de Lausanne, 27 juillet 1963.
“Poesie et Burlesque" by Francois Rochat. Gazette de Lausanne, 27-28 juillet 1963
"Ein Rueckblick" Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Fernausgabe No. 216, Blatt 8., 8/8/63, Zurich
"Windflowers " by William Wolf Cue, Mar 2, 1968, New York.
’’Petit Journal du Cinema" by D.N. Cahiers du Cinema, No 212, Mai 1969, Paris.
“Windflowers" by Marjorie Heins Rat, March 18, 1968, New York.
"Mekas' Windflowers a Pungent Lament" by Paul McKenna The Montreal Star 4/12/69
"Adolfo Meko filmas pasiekia Montreali" by V.A.J. Nepriklausoma Lietuva 4/20/69
"Protest oder Resignation?" by M.A. Aufbau, Feb. 23, 1968, New York.
"Windflowers" by Byro Variety, Feb. 21, 1968, New York
"Windflowers" by James Stoller The Village Voice, Feb. 29, 1968, New York.
"Goldstein" by Gene Moskowitz Variety, May 6, 1964, New York.
"Goldstein" by Paul Otchakovsky-Laurens Jeune Cinema. No. 13, Mars 1966, Paris.
"Goldstein" by Philippe Deference, Cinema 66, Mars 1966, Paris.
"Goldstein: Avant-garde Picture Recalls Hallelujah” by Eugene Archer New York Times, 5/8/68
"Skyscraper" Variety, Sept. 22, 1965 New York
"Skyscraper" by Norman Nadel New York World-Telegram. Nov. 15, 1965.
"The Uses of Comic Imagination" by Richard Watts, Jr. New York Post, Nov. 15, 1965
"It's a Musical" by Julius Novick The Village Voice, Nov. 25, 1965, New York.
"The French-American Challenge Cup Races: Ski Ski!" by Esse Daily Variety, Jan 24, 1969 Los Angeles.
"Hallelujah les Collines" Combat, Oct. 26/27, 1963, Paris
"Hallelujah: Les 'Dingues' au Cinema" by Guy Allombert Arts, Oct. 30, 1963 Paris.
"Hallelujah: l'avant-garde loufoque" by Robert Benayoun France Observateur. 11/7/63
"Un poème farfelu" by Michel Mardore Lettres Françaises, Nov. 14, 1963, Paris.
"Hallelujah les Collines" by Yvonne Baby Le Monde, Nov. 13, 1963, Paris.
"Une divine idiotie" by Michel Aubriant Paris-Presse- l'Intransigeant. 11/13/63, Paris.
"Une Improvisation loufoque et tendre" by Armand Monjo L'Humanite 11/11/63, Paris.
"Hallelujah les Collines" by Claude Mauriac Le Figaro Littéraire, Nov. 14, 1963, Paris.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Harriet R. Polt Film Quarterly Fall 1963. Vol. XVII, No. 1, Los Angeles
"Hallelujah les Collines!" by Jeander Liberation, Nov. l4, 1963, Paris.
"Hallelujah les Collines" by Pierre Mazars Le Figaro, Nov.15, 1963, Paris.
"Du Burlesque en Liberté" by Pierre Marcabru Arts, Nov. 13, 1963, Paris.
"Jack et Leo" by Claude Tarare Paris Express, Nov 21, 1963, Paris.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Jean d'Yvoire Telerama No. 723. Nov. 24, 1963, Paris.
"Newcomers Present ’Hallelujah the Hills' a Vermont Farce" by Eugene Archer, New York Times, Dec. 17, 1963
"Hallelujah - a Wacky Film if Nothing Else" by Dorothy Masters New York Daily News, 12/17/73 12/17/73
"Too Long To Stay Hilarious" by Judith Crist New York Herald Tribune, Dec. 17, 1963
"Hallelujah is Fun for Actors, at Least" by Alton Cook New York World Telegram. Dec. 17, 1963
"Hallelujah the Hills" New York Journal American, Dec. 17, 1963
"Hallelujah the Hills at 5th Avenue Cinema" by Archer Winsten N Y Post 12/17/63
"Movie Journal" by Herman G. Weinberg Village Voice, Dec. 19, 1963 New York
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Andrew Sarris Village Voice, Dec. 1963, New York.
"New Films in London" by Richard Roud The Guardian, 12/20/63, Manchester
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Candide The Villager, Dec. 19, 1963, New York
"Apie broliu Meku filma 'Hallelujah the Hills" by Ns. Laisve, 12/20/63, New York
"Hallelujah the Hills" by H.M. Aufbau Dec. 20, 1963, New York.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Brendan Gill New Yorker. Dec. 21, 1963. New York.
"Snowbound" Evening Standard, Dec. 19, 1963, London
"Hallelujah the Hills" Dec. 19, 1963, Times, London
"Hallelujah the Hills" Daily Telegraph, Dec. 12, 1963, London
"Hallelujah the Hills” Daily Express, Dec. 20, 1963, London
"Hallelujah the Hills" Financial Times, Dec. 20, 1963, London
"Hallelujah the Hills" New Statesman Dec. 27, 1963. London
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Dilys Powell The Sunday Times, Dec. 22, 1963, London
"The Art Film" by Penelope Gilliatt The Observer, Dec. 22, 1963, London
“Hallelujah the Hills directed by Adolfas Mekas” Yale Daily News, Dec 16, 1963, New Haven
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Ronald Gold Motion Picture Daily, Dec. 27, 1963, New York
"La Vie Immédiate" by F.W. Cahiers du Cinema. Tome XXVI. No. 153. Mars 1964, Paris
"High Jinks in the New England Winter" by Richard Roud Manchester Guardian, Vol. 90. No.1, Jan. 2, 1964
"Une divine idiotie, un maussade omnibus..." by Alain Pontaut La Presse. Jan. ’64, Montreal
"Meyer Kupferman; Hallelujah the Hills" by Herbert Kupferberg The Atlantic, 1964.
"Rouge et Noir USA" by G. Charensol. Les Nouvelles Littéraire, Jan. 2, I964, Paris
"Coffee, Brandy & Cigars" by Herman G. Weinberg Film Culture No. 31. Winter 1963-4. New York.
"Hallelujah the Hills" Film. No. 38. 1964, London.
“Satire on Movies Full of Vitality by James Powers The Hollywood Reporter 2/21/64. Los Angeles.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Raymond Duronat Films and Filming. Feb. 1964, London
"Hallelujah the Hills" A-My The Green Sheet. Feb. 1964, New York
"Qui verra Vera..." by Robert Benayoun Positif. Feb. 1964, Paris
"Aleluja u brdima" Filmska kultura Feb. 1964. Broj. 38, Zagreb
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Paul Breslow Vogue. Feb. 15, 1964. New York
"Hallelujah! It's Great Fun!" by Richard Christiansen Chicago Daily News, Feb 26, 1964
"Fright Bill Booked at Cinema Theatre" by Hazel Flynn Citizen-News, March 5, 1964
"The Surest Sigh of Spring" by Eleanor Keen Chicago Sun-Times. Feb. 23, 1964
"Screwball Stuff" by Hollis Alpert Saturday Review, Feb. 29, 1964, New York
"Hallelujah the Hills Hilarious, Crazy Film" by Kevin Thomas Los Angeles Times 3/5/64
"Wild, Weird, Wacky Film at Cinema" by John G. Houser Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, Mar. 6, 1964, Los Angeles
"Movie Lacks a Plot, but it's Lots of Fun" by William Leonard Chicago Tribune, 3/10/64
"Hallelujah the Hills Young and Antic Comedy" by Marjory Adams The Boston Globe, 3/12/64
"Hallelujah the Hills! All Fun, No Substance" by Peggy Doyle, Boston Record American, 3/12/64
"Mekas' Hallelujah the Hills Offbeat Excursion in Comedy" by McLaren Harris The Boston Herald. March 12, 1964.
"Nutty But Good Fun" Boston Traveler, Mar. 12, 1964.
"Hallelujah is Hilarious" by Cynthia Van Hazinga College News. Mar. 19, 1964. Wellesley.
"Zany New Comedy Spoofs Its Artistic Peers" by Anne Burnett. Northeastern News, Mar 20, 1964
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Andrew T. Weil Crimson 1964, Harvard
"Low-cost film is high-calibre fun" by Richard C. Art 1964.
"Sound and Fury, Signifying Nothing" by Lois Palken Tufts Weekly, 3/27/64, Medford MA
"Hallelujah the Hills" by McLaren Harris Boston Herald, March 27, 1964.
"Nachlese zum Festival der Heiterkeit" Oesterreichische Film u. Kino Zeitung,
"The American Film,” by Gudrun Howarth The Seventh Art. Spring 1964
"Hallelujah, har filmar USA:s fribytare" by Lasse Bergstrom Expressen. April 6, 1964. Stockholm.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Robin Beat Time & Tide. Vol. XI. No. 227, April 1964, London
"Vermont Nonsense" San Francisco Chronicle, Apr. 22, 1964.
"Hallelujah the Hills Proves It Helps to be Cockoo!" by Arthur Spaeth. Sun Press & Sun Messenger, April 23, 1964, San Francisco
"Sap Runs High in Vermont" by Paul Speegle S.F. News Call Bulletin, 4/23/64, San Francisco
"Hallelujah — Brash and Different" by P.K. San Francisco Chronicle, 4/23/64
"A New Wave in Vermont" by Stanley Eichelbaum San Francisco Examiner, 4/23/64
"Hallelujah the Hills, Acclaimed as Wildest, Weirdest, Wooziest" by Charles Richardson. The Commuter, April 23, 1964, Cleveland, OH.
"For the Way Out -- Nutty Potpourri" by Stan Anderson The Cleveland Press, 4/24/64
"Hill Hidden in Big Fog, Critic Says" by W. Ward Marsh The Plain Dealer, 4/24/64, Cleveland
"Hallelujah Gets Good Audience" by James Meade San Diego Union, May 12, 1964
"Hallelujah the Hills " by Dwight Macdonald Esquire, Vol.LXII, No. 1, July 1964.
"Hallelujah the Hills" by Dwight Macdonald Esquire, Nov. ‘64; Feb. ‘66; Oct. ‘66; June ‘66, July ‘69
"Hallelujah the Hills" by E.P. Filmkritik, August 1964, Munchen
"Halleluja, broder!" Chaplin Sept. 64. No. 48. Stockholm.
"Un beau film au Grand Chapiteau" by E. Delalandre Le Meridional, 8/3/66 Cassis, France
"Hallelujah les Collines" by Alain Strambi La Marseillaise, Aug. 1, 1966, Marseille
"Viennale der Heiterkeit" by Goswin Dorfler. Die Furche, Dec. 1964, Wien
"Hallelujah die Hugel" by Peter M. Ladiges Filmkritik 1966
"Le 7e Art Pan" by Guetapan Aug. 9, 1967, Pan, Bruxelles
"Underground Prevue" by Miller Francis Jr. November
"Going Home" by Nicholas Yanni Hollywood Reporter, Oct. 1972, Los Angeles.
"Two Brothers' journey to a home they were forced to leave" by Wes Rehberg. The Home News. Oct. 5, 1972, New Brunswick, NJ
"Going Home" by D. L. De Spectator, Dec. 12, 1972, Bruxelles.
"Going Home" by Georges Ade De Nieuwe, Dec, 12, 1972, Bruxelles
"Going Home" by Calvin Tomkins. The New Yorker, Jan. 6, 1973, New York
"Women as Props and Scenery" by Gail Rock. MS, Jan. 1973, New York
"Von Nekes bis Mekas” by Brigitte Jeremias. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 10/17/72
"Home Movie as Homelessness" by Jonathan Rosenbaum. Village Voice, 11/2/72 New York
"Going Home" by Victoria Schultz Changes, Nov. 1972.
"Notes on the NY Film Festival" by T.A. Gallagher. Changes, Nov. 1972.
”Saga of Homecoming" by Vincent Canby. New York Times, Oct. 5, 1972
"Film The Medium of Right Now" by Walter Borawski. Poughkeepsie Journal, Nov. 19, 1972
"New York Film Festival Report" Catholic Film Newsletter, 1972 New York
"Lietuviski apmastymai Niujorke" by Almus Salcius Laisve, Sept 29, 1972, New York
"Going Home" by Robe Variety, Oct. 11, 1972, New York
"Kelione i Lietuva New Yorko filmu festivalyje" by Jonas Kisnis. Vienybe, 1/12/73 New York
"Hallelujah the Hills Will Take Some Deciphering" Morning Telegram, 12/18/63 New York
"New Group Working on a Movie Comedy" The New York Times, 1964, New York
"Broken Images of Hallelujah the Hills" by Godfrey John. Christian Science Monitor, 3/25/64 3/25/64
"Mekas film's Cuban theme" by David Sterritt. Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 27, 1971
"Scotia Girl Scores in Art Theatre Film" by Robert Day. Times-Union, June 20, 1964, Albany
"Don't Go for your Gun, Friend - It's a Movie!" by Thomas H. Russell. The Tribune Democrat, 9/12/64 Johnstown PA
"Our Man is Disillusioned" by Thomas H. Russell The Tribune-Democrat, 9/12/64 Johnstown, PA
"Baker-Whitely Takes Off Make-up, But Memories Remain" by Thomas H. Russell. The Tribune-Democrat, 10/21/1964, Johnstown, PA
"Is the Spoof Era Ending?" by Eleanor Keen Chicago Sun-Times, Jan. 9, 1966
"Hope Canyon--But it's Just a Front!" Tribune-Democrat Sept. 12, 1964, Johnstown, PA
"He Suffers if the Pay is Good" by Bob Ellison Chicago Sun- Times, Jan. 16, 1966
"Innovadores Norteamericanos del Séptimo Arte" Vision, April 6, 1965
"Que es el nuovo cine americano?" by Gretchen Weinberg Tiempo del Cine, 3/1965 Buenos Aires
"La invasion de los extravagantes" Primera Plana, Aug. 3, 1965 Buenos Aires
"Talk of the Town" The New Yorker, Oct. 9, 1965 New York.
"Mekas: the Man from the Hills" by Dane Lanken The Saturday Gazette, 4/26/69 Montreal
"Mekas Brothers Plan to Shoot Hallelujah the Hills in New York" BackStage 9/22/61 New York
"Zany Movie Filmed in South Derry" by Judson Hall The Brattleboro Daily Reformer, 1/18/68
"Adolfas Mekas; Mon film est un chant d'amitié" La Cinematographic Francaise, 5/20/63 Paris
"Hallelujah the Hills La Comica Finale" by Ugo Casiraghi La Fiera del Cinema, July 1963, Roma
"Hallelujah the Hills" Festival. 23 Juglio 1963. Locarno
"Adolfo Meko Aleliuja kalnams" by R. Vastokas Teviskes Ziburiai. Oct. 10, 1963
"Foofs, Spoofs are Far Out and Big" Life, Dec. 20, 1963, New York
"Castrated Cinema" by Charles Sterling Village Voice, Dec. 26, 1963, New York
"Towards Incest" by Danis Berger Village Voice, Jan. 2, 1964, New York
"Aleliuja, kalnai!" Dirva, Dec. 6, 1963, New York
"Lietuviu filmininku laimejimas" Draugas, Dec. 14, 1963, Chicago
"Meku filmo premjera" Vienybe. Dec. 6, 1963, New York
"Hallelujah the Hills” Film Culture, Winter 1963/64 New York
"Adolfas Mekas and the Movies" by Richard Christiansen Chicago Sun-Times, 1964
"Peter Beard Leads Hallelujah Chorus" by Eli Flam The Patriot Ledger, 3/13/64, Boston
"Laiskai in New Yorko" by Stasys Gostautas Draugas, Jan. 4, 1964, Chicago
"Pasisekimas atejo per viena diena" by k.b. Draugas, Feb. 22, 1964, Chicago
"Compañeras and Companeros" by Hans Variety, Oct. 28, 1970, New York
"Compañeras and Compañeros" by Andrew Sarris Village Voice, Dec. 3, I970, New York
"Compañeras and Compañeros" by Irwin Silber Guardian, Dec. 5, I970, New York
"Documentary Depicts Youth Rose in Revolt" by Vincent Canby New York Times, Dec 4, 1970
"Companeras and Compañeros" by Archer Winsten New York Post, Dec. 4, 1970
“Nuevo Cine Americano en Knoekk-le-Zoute” by Raymond Borde Nuestro Cine, No 38 1965, Madrid
"Interview with Jonas Mekas" by Scott MacDonald October, Summer 1984, Cambridge MA
“Saint Adolfas” Lithuanian hipster directs lively film scene at Bard by Syd M. Woodstock Times, October 3, 1991
"Bard's Film Program Celebrates 20 Years" by D.X. Barton Gazette Advertiser, Feb 13, 1992, Red Hook, NY
"Twenty Years of the People's Film Front" by Gregory Giaccio The Bard Observer, Feb 12, 1992, Annandale, NY
"American Independent Narrative Cinema of the 60's" by Gary Morris Bright Lights Journal, January 2000 http://brightlightsfilm.com/27/sixtiescinema1.php
“Adolfas Mekas b.1925, Filmmaker, Teacher” Cosmic Baseball Association. http://wwwcosmicbaseball,com/amekas05.html
“Adolfas Mekas, People’s Film Dept” by Frances Sandiford. About Town, Fall 2009, Hudson Valley, NY
"I woke up this morning to sad news..." by Hellin Kay www.Champagne and Heels, June 1, 2011
“Adieu, Adolfas” by Syd M Woodstock Times, June 9, 2011, Woodstock, NY
"Hallelujah The Hills" by R.B. The New Yorker, October 31, 2011
"See Beyond the Expected": Anthology Salutes Adolfas Mekas by Tom McCormack The L. Magazine, Oct 19, 2011,New York
“Wild at Heart” by Mikhail Horowitz Bardian magazine, Bard College Fall 2011, Annandale NY
Anthology Film Archives - "The Films of Adolfas Mekas" Time Out New York, Oct 20/26, 2011
Alternatives and Revivals "Hallelujah The Hills" by Hoberman Village Voice, Oct 26/Nov 1,2011, New York
"Thoughts on the Adolfas Mekas Retrospective" by Daniel Guzman Cinespect, Oct 22, 2011, New York
On the Horizon "Movies Brother Act" by Andy Rementer The New Yorker, October 17, 2011
"Remembering the Masters" Spotlight/16th IFFKerala, December 9, 2011
“The Many Lives of Adolfas Mekas” by Syd M Almanac Weekly Dec 13, 2012, Woodstock
“A Foolish Genius: The Life and Work of Adolfas Mekas” by Philippe Dijon de Monteton. http://www.experimentalconversations.com/articles/969/a-foolish-genius
“Hallelujah the Hills” by R.B. The New Yorker, January 24, 2013, New York
“The Joy and Exuberance of Adolfas Mekas: Hallelujah the Hills” by Aaron Cutler The L Magazine, 1/23/2013 NY http://theLmagazine.com/newyork/the-joy-and-exuberance-of-adolfas-mekas-hallelujah-the-hills/Content?oid=2291682
“New Yawk New Wave” at Film Forum by David Fear TimeOut New York, January 2013. http://www.timeout.com/newyork/film/new-yawk-new-wave-at-film-forum
Now Playing "Hallelujah the Hills" by R.B. The New Yorker, January 28, 2013, New York
"These Are The Words of Saint Tula" by George Dupont Bard Free Press, February 2013, Annandale New York
"I woke up this morning to sad news..." by Hellin Kay www.Champagne and Heels, June 1, 2011
"VISA TAI-NE SAPNAS" by Kestutis Sapoka Kulturos barai 2012 p. 45-48
Mekas, Adolfas. "A Letter From Mexico or a Film Between Two Mafias." Film Culture 20 (1959): 72-79. Print.
Bard College Periodicals
Bard College. "Adolfas Mekas Lionized in Lithuania." Bardian Spring (2013): 27. Print.
Bard College. Biennial Report. Rep. Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College, 2002-2004. Print.
Bard College. "Hallelujah Adolfas!" Bardian (2004): 25. Print.
Bard College. "President's Awards Ceremony." Bardian Fall (2013): 21. Print.
Bard College. "Faculty Notes." Bardian Spring(2008): 62. Print.
Bard College. "Books by Bardians." Bardian Summer(2007): 44. Print.
Bard College. "Distinctive Ways to Learn." BardCollege Bulletin April 123.2 (1984): 26. Print.
Bard College. "Summer Scholars on Campus, Milton AveryGraduate School of the Arts, Faculty/ Administration Notes." BardCollege Bulletin Perspectives August 125.6 (1986): 11-12+. Print.
Bard College. "Faculty Notes." Annandale Winter132.1 (1992): 54. Print.
Bard College. "The Sophomore and JuniorYears." Bard 131.5 (1992): 15. Print.
Bard College. "Film At Bard." St. Stephen'sAlumni Magazine February (1973): 13. Print.
"Anthro & Film Majors." St. Stephen's Alumni Magazine 18.3 (1975): 11. Print.
Bard College. "First Session of MFA Program Completed." BardCollege Bulletin 120.3 (1981): 4. Print.
"Bard Students Begin Work on Comedy Film." RegisterStar [Annandale-on-Hudson] 17 Mar. 1983: n. pag. Print.
Bard College. The Master of Fine Arts Program.Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College, 1985. Print.
Bard College. "Dedication Day." Perspectives 124.4(1985): 2. Print.
Bard College. The Master of Fine Arts Program.Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College, 1989. Print.
Bard College. The Master of Fine Arts Program.Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College, 1990. Print.
Bard College. The Master of Fine Arts Program.Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College, 1992. Print.
"The Arts." Bard Perspectives Nov 125.2 (1985): 6-7. Print.
Bard College Annual Report 128.2 (1989): 10. Print.
Bard College Annual Report June 1987: 2. Print.
Bard [Annandale] Jan. 1988: 5. Print.
Bard in Brief [Annandale] Feb. 1990: 6. Print.
Bard in Brief [Annandale] Nov. 1991: n. pag. Print.
Bard in Brief [Annandale] Aug. 1992: 6. Print.
Bard in Brief [Annandale] Mar. 1992: 3. Print.
The Bardian [Annandale] Nov. 1996: 5. Print.
Walter, Wm., ed. "Film at Bard." St. Stephen's Alumni Magazine 16.1 (1973): 13. Print.
A Working Community of Artists: The Interdisciplinary Master of Fine Arts Summer Program. Annandale-on-Hudson: Bard College Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, 1982. Print.
Bard College. "Adolfas Mekas Lionized in Lithuania." Bardian Spring 2013 (n.d.): 27. Print.
Bard College. "President's Award Ceremony." Bardian Fall 2013 (n.d.): 21. Print.
Godard, Jean-Luc, and Tom Milne. Godard on Godard. New York: Viking, 1972. 277. Print.
Lithuanian Film Directors. Memphis: LLC, 2010. Print.
“Hallelujah les Collines” l’Avant-Scene No. 64. Novembre 1966 Paris. (Special Issue - screenplay in French
“Hallelujah les Collines” Fiche Filmographique No. 229 Paris (Special Issue)
“The New American Cinema” by Gregory Battcock pp. 202–204 E.P. Dutton & Co. 1967
“Introduction to the American Underground Film” by Sheldon Renan pp. 143–169 E.P. Dutton & Co. 1967
“Jeune Cinema Americain” par Paul & Jean-Louis Leutrat pp 40–48 & other references. Premier Plan, Paris ‘67
“Movie Journal” by Jonas Mekas pp. 149, 170, 192; 67-69. 121, 326, The Macmillan Co. 1972
“On Movies” by Dwight Macdonald pp. 361–364. Berkley Publishing Corp. 1969
“Who is Who in America” Entry. 1969
“Film Culture Reader” edited by P. Adams Sitney pp. 71, 80, 317, 319-320 Praeger Publishers. 1970
“Confessions of a Cultist: On Cinema” by Andrew Sarris pp 11, 291 Simon and Schuster 1970
“Encyclopedia of Film” by Roger Manvell pp. 56, 96, 359 Crown 1970
“Underground Film – A Critical History” by Parker Tyler Entry. Grove Press 1970
“Experimental Cinema” by David Curtis p. 135 Universe Books 1971
“The Scene” by Calvin Tompkins pp. 164–169, 171, 173, 176, 182, 186 The Viking Press 1970
“The Filmgoer’s Companion” by Leslie Halliwell Entry. Flare Books, Avon Publishers 1974
“Film – An Introduction” by John L. Fell pp. 7, 237. Praeger Publishers 1975
“The Oxford Companion to Film” edited by Liz-Anne Bawden p. 459 Oxford University Press 1976
“The Cinema As Art “ by Ralph Stephenson and J. R. Debrix pp 72, 253 London Penguin Bks ’74; fotos pp 362, 450
“I Had Nowhere to Go” by Jonas Mekas Black Thistle Press, NY ’74 ; fotos pp 362, 450. "I haunt the pages of this book." AM
“Lost, Lost, Lost” edited by Pip Chodorov and Elodie Imbeau with Christian Lebrat pp 20, 36 foto 44, 49, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59 foto, 61, 62, 67, 68, 73, 74, 82 Editions Paris Experimental 2000
"Green Mountain Cinema 1" Created and Edited by Stephen R. Bissette A Black Coat Press Book, 2004; pp 14, 50, 53, 54
Lithuanian Film Directors. Memphis, TN: LLC, 2010. Print.
- Bruce Weber (June 2, 2011). "Adolfas Mekas, Avant-Garde Filmmaker and Teacher, Is Dead at 85". The New York Times.
- IndieWire (May 31, 2011)