Agadez

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Agadez اغادیز
View of Agadez, from mosque's minaret
View of Agadez, from mosque's minaret
Agadez اغادیز is located in Niger
Agadez اغادیز
Agadez اغادیز
Location of Agadez
Coordinates: 16°58′0″N 7°59′0″E / 16.96667°N 7.98333°E / 16.96667; 7.98333
Country  Niger
Region Agadez Region
Department Tchirozerine Department
Commune Agadez
Sultanate 1449 CE
Elevation 520 m (1,710 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 124,324

Agadez, formerly spelled Agades,[1] is the largest city in northern Niger, with a population of 88,569 (2005 census). It lies in the Sahara and is the capital of Aïr, one of the traditional TuaregBerber federations. The city is also the capital of the Agadez Region. As of 2011, the urban commune had a total population of 124,324 people.[2]

History[edit]

Agadez Grand Mosque

The city was founded before the fourteenth century and gradually became the most important Tuareg city, supplanting Assodé, by growing around trans-Saharan trade. The city still sees the arrival of caravans, bringing salt from Bilma.

In 1449, Agadez became a sultanate, while around 1500 it was conquered by the Songhai Empire. At this point, the city had a population of around 30,000 people and was a key passage for the medieval caravans trading between the West African cities of Kano (and as a result Hausa language is the traditional lingua franca between different ethnic groups in the city, especially in the area of trade, religion and administration) and Timbuktu and the North African oases of Ghat, Ghadames, and Tripoli, on the Mediterranean shore. Decline set in after the Moroccan invasion, and the population sank to less than 10,000. Agadez was the farthermost point of the Ottoman Empire in the African continent until the 19th century before being occupied by the French colonial empire.

The city was ruled by the French from 1900. A rebellion by Kaocen Ag Mohammed occurred in 1916, but was defeated by French forces. Later, Agadez became an important location in the Tuareg Rebellion of the 1990s.

Culture and tourism[edit]

Today, Agadez flourishes as a market town and as a centre for the transportation of the uranium mined in the surrounding area. Notable buildings in the city include the Agadez Grand Mosque, originally dating from 1515 but rebuilt in the same style in 1844, the Kaocen Palace (now a hotel) and the Agadez Sultan's Palace. The city is also known for its camel market and its silver and leatherwork.

Some popular local musicians have found recognition in the west, like Tuareg guitar player Bombino and his band Group Bombino, Group Inerane and others. Mdou Moctar's film, Akounak Teggdalit Taha Tazoughai, is set and filmed on location in Agadez.[3]

Airport[edit]

Agadez Airport was named after Mano Dayak, the Tuareg leader who is native to the region.

2007 violence[edit]

See: Second Tuareg Rebellion

As a result of the Second Tuareg Rebellion, sporadic violence and the displacement of numerous people affected the Agadez area from late 2007 into 2009. All of northern Niger was placed on the United States State Department list of areas which are unsafe for travel by United States citizens, covering late 2007 to the end of 2008. Tourist flights were also suspended to Agadez from European airlines for the 2007–2008 tourist season (September - March). The burgeoning tourist industry, which prior to 2007 had surpassed that of the Niamey and the rest of the nation, was essentially ended. The entire region was placed under a Niger government State of Exception (limiting travel, gatherings, political activities, etc.) in October 2007, renewed through early 2009. Roads to and from Agadez were reported to have been mined, and the Niger government closed the area to international journalists and aid organizations. An unknown number (reported as several thousands) of internally displaced people converged on the city as a result of the unrest.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Agadez, Niger
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38
(100)
40
(104)
41
(106)
47
(117)
50
(122)
46
(115)
48
(119)
44
(111)
42
(107)
41
(105)
43
(109)
40
(104)
50
(122)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82.4)
31.5
(88.7)
35.4
(95.7)
39
(102.2)
41.2
(106.2)
41
(105.8)
38.9
(102.0)
37.4
(99.3)
38.5
(101.3)
37.2
(99.0)
32.3
(90.1)
29.1
(84.4)
35.8
(96.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
27.2
(81.0)
31.4
(88.5)
33.9
(93.0)
33.6
(92.5)
31.9
(89.4)
30.6
(87.1)
31.6
(88.9)
29.6
(85.3)
24.7
(76.5)
21
(69.8)
28.3
(82.9)
Average low °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
13.9
(57.0)
18.1
(64.6)
22.9
(73.2)
25.8
(78.4)
26.2
(79.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24
(75.2)
24
(75.2)
21.6
(70.9)
15.8
(60.4)
13
(55.4)
20.2
(68.3)
Record low °C (°F) −1
(30)
7
(45)
6
(43)
13
(56)
21
(69)
19
(67)
18
(65)
17
(63)
19
(66)
13
(55)
5
(41)
−1
(30)
−1
(30)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0.00)
0
(0.00)
0
(0.00)
2
(0.08)
5.1
(0.20)
9.9
(0.39)
35.1
(1.38)
50
(1.97)
7.9
(0.31)
0
(0.00)
0
(0.00)
0
(0.00)
109.2
(4.30)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 297.6 282.5 294.5 288.0 297.6 270.0 288.3 285.2 285.0 306.9 303.0 294.5 3,493.1
Source #1: Climate Data [4]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only 1961-1990).[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Air" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. 1. 1911.
  2. ^ "Annuaires_Statistiques". Institut National de la Statistique du Niger. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "http://www.conceptoradio.net/2013/11/13/sahel-sounds-algunos-artistas-africanos-nunca-han-visto-un-vinilo/". conceptoradio. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Climate Data. "Climate Agadez, Niger". Climate Data. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  5. ^ Climatological Information for Agadez, Niger, Hong Kong Observatory accessed 20 April 2012.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 16°58′N 7°59′E / 16.967°N 7.983°E / 16.967; 7.983