Alaska Marine Highway
The M/V Malaspina at port in Skagway, Alaska
|Locale||Aleutian Islands to
|Route||Alaska Marine Highway System|
|Began operation||First founded in 1949. Officially designated in 1963.|
|System length||3,100 miles (5,000 km)|
The Alaska Marine Highway System operates along the south-central coast of the state, the eastern Aleutian islands and the Inside Passage of Alaska and British Columbia, Canada. Ferries serve communities in Southeast Alaska that have no road access, and the vessels can transport people, freight, and vehicles. AMHS's 3,500 miles (5,600 km) of routes go as far south as Bellingham, Washington in the contiguous United States and as far west as Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, with a total of 32 terminals throughout Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington. It is part of the National Highway System and receives federal highway funding. It is also a form of transportation of vehicles between the state and the contiguous United States, going through Canada but not requiring international customs and immigration.
The Alaska Marine Highway System is a rare example (in the USA) of a shipping line offering regularly scheduled service for the primary purpose of transportation rather than of leisure or entertainment. Voyages can last many days, but, in contrast to the luxury of a typical cruise line, cabins cost extra, and most food is served cafeteria-style.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2009)|
The Alaska Marine Highway was founded in 1948 by Haines residents Steve Homer and Ray Gelotte, who used a converted LCT-Mark VI landing craft which they christened the MV Chilkoot. Their business was purchased by the territorial government in 1951 and renamed the Alaska Marine Highway System by the state government in 1963. Service was extended to Prince Rupert, British Columbia that year, and to Seattle, Washington (at Pier 48), in 1967. The southern terminus of the AMHS was moved from Seattle to Bellingham, Washington in October 1989, after years of lobbying by Bellingham and the construction of the Bellingham Cruise Terminal.
The southeast AMHS route system is divided into two subsystems: the mainline routes which typically take more than one day for the ship to travel; and shorter routes where the vessels depart their home port in the morning, travel to destination ports and then return to their home port on the same day. The shorter routes are commonly referred to as “day boat” routes.
The mainline routes carry a high percentage of tourists in the summer, and provide service between Bellingham, Washington or Prince Rupert, British Columbia and Skagway, Alaska. Along the way, the ships stop in Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, Sitka, Juneau, and Haines. Although Kake and Hoonah are smaller communities, they are served by certain mainline sailings. During 2008, the five largest AMHS vessels were used on the Southeast mainline routes. These were the MV Columbia, MV Kennicott, MV Malaspina, MV Matanuska, and the MV Taku.
Day boat service was also provided on the North Lynn Canal route during the peak summer season by MV Malaspina. This route provides round-trip service between Juneau, Haines and Skagway. The day boat routes connect the smaller communities of Southeast Alaska with each other and with the Southeast Alaska mainline communities (Ketchikan, Petersburg, Wrangell, Sitka, Juneau, Haines and Skagway) that serve as regional centers for commerce, government health services, and/or connections to other transportation systems. The day boat routes primarily serve local residents, and include Angoon, Hoonah, Kake, Metlakatla, Pelican, and Tenakee.
In 2008 there were three AMHS vessels that provided service on the day boat routes. These were the MV LeConte, the MV Fairweather and the MV Lituya. The MV Lituya is dedicated to providing day boat service between Ketchikan and Metlakatla. The Southeast System connects with the continental road system at Bellingham, Washington, Prince Rupert, British Columbia, and in Alaska at Haines and Skagway.
When the M/V Kennicott, a vessel certified to operate in open waters, joined the fleet in the summer 1998 the ferry system expanded to include regular cross-gulf sailings. Also known as “inter-tie trips”, these sailings connect Southeastern Alaska with Southcentral and Southwest regions of the state. All cross-gulf trips include a stop at the port of Yakutat, a community that is unique in that it is served only on a cross-gulf route. During 2008, the AMHS provided Yakutat with 10 port calls.
The Southwest system serves Prince William Sound, Kodiak Island, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. The M/V Tustumena provides regular service between Kodiak, Port Lions, Seldovia and Homer. In 2008, between April and October, the M/V Tustumena traveled out the Aleutian chain once a month to Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, stopping at Chignik, Sand Point, King Cove, False Pass, Akutan and Cold Bay. This trip is not made in the winter because of adverse weather conditions. In 2008 service in Prince William Sound to Valdez, Cordova and Whittier was provided by the M/V Aurora. The M/V Chenega provided additional service during the summer season, and the M/V Kennicott provided supplemental service. AMHS also provided fifty-five stops in the village of Tatitlek and thirty-six stops in Chenega Bay. Tourist passengers add a significant percentage to the Prince William Sound traffic in the summer, especially between Valdez and Whittier. In the winter months when traffic demand was significantly reduced and weather conditions worsened, the M/V Chenega was moved to North Lynn Canal to replace the Fairweather for its overhaul period. The M/V Tustumena also underwent a CIP project, leaving the M/V Aurora to provide service between the ports.
The Alaska Marine Highway's main hub is in Juneau, though administrative offices are located in Ketchikan. Other smaller operational hubs include Cordova (Prince William Sound), Ketchikan (southern Panhandle), and Kodiak (Southcentral Alaska).
The AMHS serves the following communities year-round: Akutan; Angoon; Bellingham, Washington; Chenega Bay; Chignik; Cold Bay; Cordova; False Pass;Haines; Homer; Hoonah; Juneau; Kake; Ketchikan; King Cove; Kodiak; Metlakatla; Ouzinkie; Petersburg; Port Lions; Prince Rupert, British Columbia; Sand Point; Seldovia; Sitka; Skagway; Tatitlek; Tenakee Springs; Unalaska/Dutch Harbor; Valdez; Whittier; Wrangell; and Yakutat. Bartlett Cove, location of the Glacier Bay National Park ranger station and eight miles (13 km) from the community of Gustavus, is served occasionally by the M/V LeConte in summer months.
The following vessels, from smallest to largest, currently serve in the Alaska Marine Highway's fleet:
- M/V Lituya, solely dedicated to serving the Ketchikan-Metlakatla route.
- M/V Aurora, operates in Prince William Sound.
- M/V LeConte, serves the feeder communities in northern Southeast as a day boat.
- M/V Chenega (fast ferry), operates in Prince William Sound.
- M/V Fairweather (fast ferry), operates a variety of routes in Southeast Alaska.
- M/V Tustumena, serves Southcentral and Aleutian Island communities.
- M/V Taku, runs mainline throughout Southeast Alaska.
- M/V Malaspina, runs mainline throughout Southeast Alaska, frequently beginning in Bellingham.
- M/V Matanuska, runs mainline throughout Southeast Alaska, frequently beginning in Prince Rupert, but beginning in Bellingham for Spring 2011.
- M/V Kennicott, runs mainline throughout Southeast Alaska, frequently beginning in Prince Rupert and making a cross-Gulf of Alaska trip to Southcentral Alaska once a month.
- M/V Columbia, runs mainline throughout Southeast Alaska, frequently beginning in Bellingham.
Most Alaska Marine Highway System vessels are built for multiple-day voyages due to the large distances between ports. For example, it takes just under three days to travel from Bellingham to Skagway, and 18 hours for the Sitka to Juneau "milk run". Because of this, larger vessels (M/V Tustumena and larger) come with staterooms, while all mainline vessels have solariums, showers, and lounges for sleeping. Hot food services and, on the M/V Columbia, a sit-down restaurant are also offered.
In July 2011 the Marine Highway began the bidding process to build the first of what they refer to as "Alaska-Class Vessels", made to travel shorter routes. They would not have staterooms available for passengers. One hundred-twenty million dollars have been set aside for the project, no set timeline for completion has been established.
All current vessels are named after Alaskan glaciers.
In addition to the current fleet, the following vessels have been retired:
The AMHS carries around 350,000 passengers and 100,000 vehicles every year. In their 2008 Annual Traffic Volume Report, the Alaska Marine Highway reported moving 340,412 passengers and 109,839 vehicles; equating to the highest passenger ridership in eight years and the highest vehicle ridership in sixteen. The Ferry is very popular with summer tourists (one of the primary reasons Bellingham and Prince Rupert are AMHS destinations). Tent cities commonly sprout up on the aft of mainline vessels, and for budget-travellers, the AMHS is one of the top modes of transportation to the "Last Frontier". Service drops off significantly in winter. Vessels usually undergo overhauls and renovations during this period due to the decline in passenger and vehicle traffic (attributed to lack of tourists).
- BC Ferries – British Columbia's ferry system, similar to the Alaska Marine Highway
- Inter-Island Ferry Authority – A Southeast Alaskan ferry system that operates out of Prince of Wales Island
- Puget Sound Navigation Company, a private company connecting Washington and British Columbia
- Washington State Ferries - State-operated ferry system serving Puget Sound, the San Juan Islands and Sidney, British Columbia.
Together, these services cover the length of the Inside Passage. They connect at a number of locations.
- Staff. "The Alaska Marine Highway System". AkDOT&PF. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Staff. "Alaska Marine Highway". Alaska.org. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Staff. "Alaska Marine Highway - Gulf Coast Route". Alaska's Scenic Byways. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Staff. "Alaska Marine Highway - Inside Passage". Alaska's Scenic Byways. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- "Contact Us." Alaska Marine Highway. Retrieved on October 25, 2009.
- Alaska Marine Highway System; Annual Traffic Volume Report 2008
- Officials to Meet with Shipyard to Build Next State Ferry Ed Schoenfeld, CoastAlaska/Alaska Public Radio Network - Juneau July 13, 2011
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alaska Marine Highway System.|
- Official site
- America's Byways - Alaska Marine Highway
- Sitnews.us: "The Grand Ships of the Alaska Marine Highway System"
- Rate Study - 2008
- System analysis - 2012
- Operating Plan - 2011-2012