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|Comune di Alfonsine|
|Frazioni||Fiumazzo, Taglio Corelli, Villa Pianta, Filo, Longastrino, Borgo Gallina, Borgo Seganti|
|• Mayor||Angelo Antonellini|
|• Total||106.8 km2 (41.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|Population (30 April 2008)|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Madonna delle Grazie|
|Saint day||8 September|
There are two main hypotheses about the origins of the name Alfonsine. The first, and more accepted, is based on documents dating back to the early 16th century. It refers to Alfonso Calcagnini, who began reclamation of these lands, which were thus called "the Alfonsine" (Alfonso lands). The second is due to Antonio Polloni (Toponomia Romagnola, 1966), who assumed that the name derives from the Latin "fossa-æ" (ditch, channel, ditch dug by man), and that only later, and by coincidence, it was influenced by the name of Alfonso Calcagnini.
Alfonsine was founded in 1464, when the territory, consisting of valleys and marsh land, was donated by Borso d'Este to Teofilo Calcagnini who began the big task of reclaiming that land. The original center developed around the church of Our Lady, built in 1502 by Alfonso Calcagnini, son of Teofilo, who ruled during the period. The site, which has always been the border area between Ravenna and the domain of the Este family, has been for centuries the object of struggles for control. In 1519 Pope Leo X officially invested Calcagnini of the fee, which took the name of "Leo's territory"; the Calcagnini family became feudal Lords on behalf of both the Church and the Este. The privilege was reconfirmed by Clement VIII at the end of the century.
Despite the economic and population growth recorded during the 18th century, the inhabitants of the rural community at that time did not yet enjoy any freedom. The area served only for exploitation by and enrichment for the class of feudal lords, while the population was forced to pay fees to them and lived at a substantial social disadvantage.
The Napoleonic period saw the emancipation of Calcagnini Alfonsine, which in 1814 became the Municipality.
The harsh living conditions led to the gates of the'900, the formation of an outlaw band, and other groups engaged in the struggle to win rights for the lower classes.
During the second world war, and specifically between December 1944 and 10 April 1945, Alfonsine saw bloody clashes between Germans, Allies and partisans who fought on the front by the River Senio. At the end, the area saw destruction of 70% of homes and complete destruction of the old historic center, which was initially heavily bombed by the Allies and further undermined the Germans before their retreat northward. A museum in the town commemorates the battle—the Museum of the Battle of the Senio—which features an original Bailey bridge used by the Allies during the conflict and examples of artillery and equipment.
The City of Alfonsine is one of the cities decorated with the Military Valor for the Liberation War award, because it received the Medaglia d'Argento al Valor Militare for the sacrifices of its people and its activities in the partisan struggle during the Second World War.
- Nagykata, Hungary, since 1962
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- San Vito di Cadore, Italy, since 1988
- Mayahi, Niger, since 1988
- All demographics and other statistics: Italian statistical institute Istat.
- Enzo Biagi Italia Rizzoli Editore Milano 1975 pp. 81–100