Sir Allan Adair, 6th Baronet

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Sir Allan Henry Shafto Adair
Born (1897-11-03)3 November 1897
London
Died 4 August 1988(1988-08-04) (aged 90)
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  British Army
Years of service 1916—1947
Rank Major-General
Service number 15446
Unit Grenadier Guards
Commands held 2 Co., 3rd Grenadier Guards (1918)
3rd Grenadier Guards (1940)
30th Independent Infantry Brigade (1940-41)
6th Guards Armoured Brigade (1941-42)
Guards Armoured Division (1942-45)
13th Infantry Division (1945-46)
Battles/wars

World War I

World War II

Awards Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO), 19 December 1974
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO), 1 January 1967[1]
Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO), 13 June 1957[2]
Companion of the Order of the Bath, 29 March 1945
Distinguished Service Order, 27 August 1940[3]
Military Cross, 2 December 1918 and 2 April 1919
Four Mentions in Despatches, 29 April 1941, 22 March and 9 August 1945, and 4 June 1946
Commander of the Order of Leopold with Palm, 1945 (Belgium)
Croix de Guerre with Palm, 8 November 1945 (France)

Major General Sir Allan Henry Shafto Adair, 6th Baronet, GCVO, CB, DSO, MC & Bar, JP, DL (3 November 1897—4 August 1988) was a British Army general who served in both World Wars; as a company commander in the Grenadier Guards in the First, and as Commanding Officer the Guards Armoured Division in the Second.

Early life[edit]

Adair was born in London, the only son of Sir Robert Shafto Adair, 5th Baronet, and Mary Bosanquet.[4] He attended Harrow School between 1912 and 1916.

Military career[edit]

Adair joined the Army, receiving his commission as a probationary second lieutenant on 2 May 1916 in the 5th (Reserve) Battalion of the Grenadier Guards.[4] From December 1916 he served in France and Belgium as part of the 2nd Company, 3rd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, with the rank of lieutenant.[4]

Adair was awarded his first Military Cross on 2 December 1918. The citation read: "For conspicuous gallantry and resource while in command of the support company. Owing to thick fog the leading company lost direction and failed to turn up. He led his company correctly into position and then made several personal reconnaissances under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, and cleared up the situation. He captured the objectives without the assistance of tanks or artillery, and broke up a hostile counter-attack the following morning."[5]

With the rank of Acting-Captain, Adair was Officer Commanding 2 Company from 22 September to 11 November 1918,[4] receiving his second Military Cross on 2 April 1919 "for conspicuous gallantry and skill at Preux-au-Sart, on 4 November 1918. In command of the left front company, which was held up by an organised line of machine guns, he so manoeuvred his platoons as to capture the line with a minimum of casualties. Although wounded in the leg, he continued in command until relieved the following day.[4]

After the armistice with Germany Adair's battalion returned to London, where on 29 June 1920 he received his permanent lieutenant's commission, with seniority backdated to 2 August 1918. On 29 September 1923 he was promoted to captain in the 2nd Battalion. He was promoted to major on 22 May 1932, and returned to the 3rd Battalion to serve as second-in-command until 11 April 1940. After a short time as Chief Instructor at 161 Infantry Officer Cadet Training Unit at Sandhurst, he returned to his regiment on 8 May 1940 where he was appointed Commanding Officer of the 3rd Battalion with the rank of acting lieutenant-colonel.[4] The Guards soon found themselves in the thick of the fighting during the Battle of France, and held the perimeter against German attacks during the Dunkirk evacuation.

Adair was promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 19 September 1940, and on 17 October 1940 was appointed Commander of the 30th Independent Infantry Brigade (Guards), re-designated the 6th Guards Armoured Brigade on 15 September 1941, with the rank of temporary brigadier.[4]

From 12 September 1942 until December 1945 Adair was General Officer Commanding of the Guards Armoured Division, receiving promotion to colonel on 30 June 1943, while serving as an acting and then temporary major-general from 21 September 1942.[4] The Guards Armoured Division arrived in Normandy on 28 June 1944 as part of VIII Corps, first seeing action during "Operation Goodwood" in July, and then in "Operation Bluecoat" in July/August. Following the Allied breakout they advanced across Northern France and into Belgium as part of XXX Corps.[6] The division liberated Brussels, after making an unprecedented advance from Douai, 97 miles (156 km) away, in only 14 hours.[7] The Division then took a leading role in the ground advance in "Operation Market Garden" in September. Held in reserve during the Battle of the Bulge, it was committed to the Battle of the Reichswald ("Operation Veritable") in February and March 1945. After the German surrender in May 1945 the Division remained as part of the occupying forces, but on 12 June 1945 was converted into an infantry division.[6]

From December 1945 until 14 November 1946 Adair served as General Officer Commanding the 13th Infantry Division, based in Greece during the Civil War, and receiving promotion to major-general on 25 July 1946, with seniority from 12 November 1944.[4] He finally retired from active service on 11 March 1947, but remained in the Regular Army Reserve of Officers until reaching the mandatory retirement age on 3 November 1957.[4]

Later life[edit]

Adair was appointed Exon in the Yeomen of the Guard, the ceremonial bodyguards to the monarch, on 21 November 1947,[8] receiving promotion to Ensign on 30 June 1950[9] and then to Lieutenant on 31 August 1951,[10] before finally retiring on 14 November 1967.[11]

He served as a Governor of Harrow School from 1947 until 1952, was Colonel of the Grenadier Guards from 1961 to 1974, and a Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasons from 1969 to 1976.[4]

He also served as Deputy Lieutenant for County Antrim, and as a Justice of the Peace for the county of Suffolk.[4]

Personal life[edit]

On 28 April 1919 Adair married Enid Violet Ida Ward. They had two sons; Captain Desmond Allan Shafto Adair (1920–1943), killed in action in Italy, and Robert Dudley Shafto Adair (1923–1925), and three daughters; Bridget Mary Adair (b. 1928), Juliet Enid Adair (b. 1930) and Annabel Violet Adair (b. 1937).[12]

Adair succeeded his father as 6th Baronet on 9 October 1949[4] inheriting the family home of Flixton Hall in Suffolk. However the burden of its upkeep and maintenance, combined with heavy death duties meant that he was obliged to sell the property in 1950. In his 1986 memoir, Adair described Flixton Hall as "a vast, uncomfortable mausoleum, with no proper central heating. In winter the children had to wear their overcoats when moving from room to room". It was demolished within two years. Adair then settled in the village of Raveningham, Norfolk.[13]

Adair died in 4 August 1988 at the age of 90. With no surviving sons his title became extinct.

Publications[edit]

  • Adair, Allan (1986). Oliver Lindsey, ed. A Guards' General : the memoirs of Major General Sir Allan Adair, Bt, GCVO, CB, DSO, MC, JP, DL. London: Hamish Hamilton. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 44210. p. 5. 30 December 1966. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  2. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 41089. p. 3372. 4 June 1957. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  3. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34931. p. 5201. 23 August 1940. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hans Houterman & Jeroen Koppes. "British Army Officers 1939-1945 (Acarnley to Aizlewood)". unithistories.com. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  5. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31043. p. 14226. 29 November 1918. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Guards Armoured Division". britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  7. ^ "Adair, Sir Allan". ww2guards.com. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 38128. p. 5495. 21 November 1947. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 38956. p. 3365. 30 June 1950. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39323. p. 5607. 31 August 1951. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 44450. p. 12347. 14 November 1967. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  12. ^ Lundy, Darryl. "Maj.-Gen. Sir Allan Henry Shafto Adair, 6th Bt.". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Hancock, Ian. "The Adair Family". aviationmuseum.net. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Oliver Leese
GOC Guards Armoured Division
September 1942–December 1945
Succeeded by
John Marriott
(As GOC Guards Division)
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Robert Adair
Baronet Adair
(of Flixton Hall)
1949–1988
Succeeded by
Extinct