Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Residence||New Delhi, India
New York City, NY, USA
Saratoga, CA, USA
|Alma mater||The Doon School
The Wharton School
|Occupation||Consultant, Management expert|
|Employer||McKinsey & Company, Inc.|
|Known for||Knowledge Process Outsourcing
Business Process Outsourcing
|Salary||$ 5 - 10 million + (estimate)|
|Net worth||$ 50 - 100 million + (estimate)|
|Title||(Former) Senior Partner and Chairman, Asia Center|
|Criminal charge||conspiracy (one count)
securities fraud (one count)
|Criminal penalty||probation (two years)|
|Criminal status||pleaded guilty
(cooperated in US v. Rajaratnam; cooperated in US v. Gupta)
Anil Kumar (born 1958) was a top senior partner and director at management consultancy McKinsey & Company, where he co-founded McKinsey's offices in Silicon Valley and India and created its Internet practice (representing a quarter of McKinsey's business at the time) among others. Kumar is additionally the co-founder of the Indian School of Business with Rajat Gupta and the creator of two different kinds of outsourcing. He graduated from IIT Bombay in India, Imperial College in the UK, and The Wharton School in the US.
In 2010 he pleaded guilty to insider trading in a dramatic “descent from the pinnacle of the business world.” He was the government's first cooperator and most important witness “in two of the most important securities fraud trials in history” against close friends and business partners Raj Rajaratnam, the billionaire founder of the Galleon Group family of hedge funds, and Rajat Gupta, the former head of McKinsey and Company and a board member of Goldman Sachs and Procter and Gamble. Rajaratnam and Gupta were both convicted in separate high-profile criminal trials. He was sentenced in 2012 by Judge Denny Chin to two years of probation, who ruled that “greed wasn't the motive in [Kumar's] case” and that “this was aberrational conduct ... Mr. Kumar has led a law-abiding and productive life.” Federal prosecutors called Kumar “one of the best and most important cooperating witnesses” they had ever worked with.
Early life and education
Kumar graduated first in his class from The Doon School, an elite high school in India, and ranked among the top 100 in India for admission to the competitive Indian Institute of Technology colleges. He graduated third in his class from IIT Bombay with a degree in mechanical engineering, writing a thesis on renewable energy. Kumar attended Imperial College at the University of London on “the equivalent of the Rhodes scholarship” sponsored by Cecil Rhodes's De Beers Company. He became the first student to complete Imperial's two-year course in applied mechanics in 10 months, and also graduated first in his class. Kumar attended business school at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania with a self-designed major on the management of technology and international business.
Kumar was a “star senior partner,” and “one of McKinsey’s most senior employees [and] brightest stars.” He co-founded McKinsey's offices in Silicon Valley and India and created and led the Firm's business in three different areas of Internet companies (representing 25-30% of McKinsey's worldwide revenues at its peak), outsourcing, and intrapreneurship. He was the protégé of former chief executive Rajat Gupta, though was blamed for the collapse of McKinsey's e-commerce initiatives after the dot-com collapse and never ran in the elections for chief executive. Gupta and Kumar also co-founded the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad, India.
McKinsey and Company
Kumar began his career at Hewlett Packard as a product manager before joining McKinsey and Company in 1986 as one of the earliest Indian-Americans at the consultancy. In 1988 he co-founded McKinsey's offices in Silicon Valley with a partner, growing the office “from two people to approximately 35” by 1992. In 1993 as a partner he founded McKinsey's office in New Delhi, which together with the founder of the Mumbai office co-founded the consultancy in India. In India he pioneered the concepts of Knowledge Process Outsourcing and Business Process Outsourcing and became the protégé of then-managing director (chief executive) Rajat Gupta. Kumar returned to the United States to found and lead McKinsey's Internet practice during the dot-com bubble. “Under [Kumar's] leadership, McKinsey's e-commerce practice grew to represent a full 25-30% of the Firm's revenues,” court documents revealed, though Kumar was blamed for the evaporation of this business in the subsequent dot-com collapse. He and Gupta briefly created a program to allow the firm to accept stock in lieu of consulting fees. Kumar was also Chairman of the Knowledge Center and Chairman of the Asia Center. He was a director and corporate officer of the firm. He lived and worked from multiple offices in New Delhi, New York, and Silicon Valley, traveling over thirty thousand miles a month.
He was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Young Presidents' Organization, a founding charter member of TiE, and was the United States chairman of India's largest business lobby, the Confederation of Indian Industry.
Criticism of Kumar centered around his close relationship with Gupta and a perception of arrogance. According to The Financial Times, “the two operated as a forceful double-act to secure business for McKinsey, win access in Washington and build a brotherhood of donors around the Hyderabad-based ISB and a handful of social initiatives.” Also, according to the Times, “as much as Mr Kumar was admired for his business ability and sharpness, he also drew fire for what was seen as his arrogance.”
Kumar maintained an intentionally low profile outside McKinsey until an October 2009 arrest in conjunction with an ongoing and wide-ranging US governmental investigation into insider trading. Former mentor Rajat Gupta was later arrested by the FBI in a related case, prompting inquiries into McKinsey’s senior leadership and business model.
As of December 2009, Kumar was no longer at the consultancy. In January 2010 he pleaded guilty to insider trading charges and was “the government’s star witness” in March 2011 against billionaire friend and Galleon Group founder Raj Rajaratnam (United States v. Rajaratnam). In the sprawling case his involvement was unusual; according to a Reuters blog, “He’s the only informant who could be considered even more successful than Raj was, at least professionally if not in terms of raw cash. Raj had money, more money than he really knew what to do with, but Kumar had much more societal acceptance and prestige.” He settled with the SEC in May 2010 for $2.8 million, the amount after gains he received from Rajaratnam through a Swiss bank account in a domestic worker's name. Gupta, Rajaratnam, and Kumar were all close friends and had founded the $1.3-billion private equity firm New Silk Route together, though Rajaratnam and Kumar withdrew before the firm began operation.
He testified again as “the Government's key witness” in the May 2012 criminal trial of former mentor Rajat Gupta (United States v. Gupta), where he described the relationships between Gupta, Rajaratnam and himself. To do so was difficult, according to federal prosecutors, “because [Kumar] knew that he could be partially responsible for helping to convict someone with whom he and his family had deep and long-lasting ties.” Bloomberg commented, “When business guru Rajat Gupta and his protégé, Anil Kumar, worked together to expand management consultancy McKinsey & Co in the 1990s, a date in court years later surely was not part of the plan.”
Both Rajaratnam and Gupta were ultimately convicted in separate high-profile criminal trials.
International media, business, and finance industry observers have analyzed extensively Kumar's actions in aiding Rajaratnam. Consensus remains divided on the precise motivators of money, respect, and relationship, with The New York Times asking, “Why would people who seem to have it all — wealth, prestige, powerful jobs and infinite access to others with the same — risk that, and more, to provide inside information to the Sri Lankan-born billionaire?” Rajaratnam's annual payments were estimated at less than 5% of Kumar's annual income (and just 1-2% excluding a one-time bonus), further raising the question of motivation. Prosecutors wondered “why an incredibly bright, highly accomplished, professional consultant, and senior partner at arguably the world’s leading consulting firm, who contributed considerable time to start the Indian School of Business and to other charities, would betray his profession’s core values.”  Judge Chin would ultimately rule that “greed wasn't the motive in [Kumar's] case.”
Federal prosecutors said “Kumar's testimony was nothing short of devastating. Kumar was credible, precise, and fully corroborated.” On July 19, 2012 he was sentenced by Judge Denny Chin to two years of probation.
Education and non-profits
Kumar co-founded the Indian School of Business with Gupta in 1997, today ranked among the top 15 business schools in the world by The Financial Times. Court documents revealed he personally raised approximately 35% of all money donated to the school and kept a low profile as co-founder: “a large part of the intellectual vision of ISB is in fact Anil's, a point not many outside ISB's leadership will ever be aware of.”
In New Delhi, Kumar helped IIT Delhi double its student body with no increase in costs and was a founding board member of the Bharti Foundation. In San Jose, he served on the boards of the Children's Discovery Museum and San Jose Civic Light Opera.
As of 2012, he was working with the Baylor College of Medicine and Max Healthcare to start a medical university, teaching hospital, and nursing school in India, and also with the Hero Group to start an 8000-person engineering college in India.
Kumar maintained an intentionally low public profile, and according to prosecutors was "earning significant amounts of money at McKinsey [though] lived relatively modestly, his assets far exceeded his liabilities." He lived and worked for decades in New Delhi, New York, and Silicon Valley, traveling over thirty thousand miles a month for McKinsey. He had a Manhattan apartment in the Time Warner Center and a house in Saratoga, California. He is married with one son.
- McKinsey & Company, Inc. — in particular Notable employees and Galleon case
- Galleon insider trading case — in particular relationship with Rajaratnam and Gupta
- Indian School of Business — in particular history and formation
- New Silk Route — in particular history and formation
- Rajat Gupta — in particular relationship with Kumar
- Raj Rajaratnam — in particular conviction
- SEC v. Rajaratnam — also U.S. v. Rajaratnam
- Pulliam, Susan and Michael Rothfeld. “Motive for Stock Leak Can Be Respect, Love”. The Wall Street Journal. March 14, 2011.
- Brodsky, Reed and Richard Tarlowe. “Government's Sentencing Memorandum (section 5K1.1(a) (1)-(5))”. United States Attorneys Office for the Southern District of New York. United States Department of Justice. Access via United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (access required). July 20, 2012.
- Bray, Chad. “Kumar Avoids Jail for His Help in Insider Crackdown”. The Wall Street Journal. July 19, 2012.
- Hurtado, Patricia. "Kumar’s Rajaratnam Cooperation ‘Extraordinary,’ U.S. Says". Bloomberg. July 16, 2012.
- Kumar, Anil (453-KB) 1970-74, The Doon School Old Boys' Society Register (2011) p.87
- Morvillo, Gregory and Paul Grand. “Sentencing Memorandum”. Morvillo, Abramowitz, Grand, Iason, Anello, and Bohrer, P.C. Access via United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (access required). July 20, 2012.
- Sharma, Amol and Joann Lublin. “A Star Partner's Galleon Arrest Shakes Up Ranks at McKinsey”. The Wall Street Journal. October 21, 2009.
- Rushe, Dominic. “McKinsey Jettisons Troubled Star Kumar”. The Sunday Times. December 6, 2009.
- Byrne, John. “At McKinsey, the Winner Is…”. BusinessWeek. March 7, 2003.
- Stern, Stefan. “McKinsey Turns To Asia Chief Barton for Top Job”. The Financial Times. February 23, 2009.
- McDonald, Duff. “Galleon Scandal Creates Investing Conundrum for Executives”. CNN. October 23, 2009.
- Newmark, Evan. “Mean Street: The Disgrace of Rajat Gupta”. The Wall Street Journal WSJ Blogs. March 18, 2011.
- Rushe, Dominic. “McKinsey Implicated in Galleon Trial”. The Guardian. March 14, 2011.
- Leonhardt, David. “Big Consultants Woo Employees by Offering a Piece of the Action”. The New York Times. October 22, 1999.
- Helyar, John, Carol Hymowitz and Mehul Srivastava. “Rajat Gupta Secretly Defied McKinsey Before SEC Says Rajaratnam Was Tipped”. Bloomberg Markets Magazine. May 16, 2011.
- Bhambal, Juhi. “Knowledge@McKinsey: A Case Study”. Global Services Media. November 30, 2005.
- Talgeri, Kunal. “The McKinsey Way”. Outlook Business. May 16, 2009.
- Lattman, Peter. “Jury Hears Dozen Taped Calls at Galleon Trial”. The New York Times. March 14, 2011.
- Packer, George. “A Dirty Business”. The New Yorker. June 27, 2011.
- Masters, Brooke, James Fontanella-Khan and Justin Baer. “McKinsey Partner’s Arrest Casts Shadow”. The Financial Times. October 22, 2009.
- "Financials - Elite takes sides as Gupta fights SEC charges". Ft.com. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- de la Merced, Michael. “Hedge Fund Chief Is Charged With Fraud”. The New York Times. October 16, 2009.
- Rothfield, Michael, Susan Pulliam and Chad Bray. “Ex-Goldman Director Gupta Charged in Insider Case”. The Wall Street Journal. October 26, 2011.
- Gapper, John. “McKinsey Model Springs a Leak”. The Financial Times. March 9, 2011.
- Salmon, Felix. “McKinsey's Corrupted Culture”. Reuters. March 9, 2011.
- Bray, Chad, “Galleon Figure Kumar No Longer with McKinsey”. The Wall Street Journal. December 4, 2009.
- Kouwe, Zachery. “Guilty Plea in Galleon Insider Trading Case”. The New York Times. January 7, 2010.
- Rothfeld, Michael and Susan Pulliam. “Calling Miss Manners: Tapes in Galleon Case Show Some Snark”. The Wall Street Journal. March 17, 2011.
- Rothfeld, Michael, Susan Pulliam and Chad Bray. “Fund Titan Found Guilty”. The Wall Street Journal. May 12, 2011.
- Salmon, Felix. “How to Set Up An Insider-Trading Network”. Reuters. May 12, 2011.
- Bray, Chad. “Kumar Settles SEC Charges in Galleon Case”. The Wall Street Journal. May 17, 2010.
- Scannell, Kara. “Insider Trading Star Witness Challenged”. The Financial Times. March 17, 2011.
- SEC v. Galleon. “Notice of Appearance”. Doc 50. November 24, 2009
- Smith, Chris. “Can This Man Save Martha?” The New Yorker.
- Lattman, Peter and Benjamin Weiser. “Robert Morvillo, Legal Pioneer, Dies at 73”. The New York Times. December 25, 2011.
- "Gupta Trial: A Who’s Who of Those Who Will Come Up". The Wall Street Journal (blogs). May 22, 2012.
- Chakraborty, Barnini. "Blankfein Takes Stand, Says Gupta Was at Key Meetings". Fox Business. June 4, 2012.
- Hurtado, Patricia. "Kumar Seeks Probation, Citing Help To Gupta Prosecutors". Bloomberg. July 19, 2012.
- McCool, Grant. “Protégé testifies against McKinsey mentor Gupta”. Bloomberg. June 1, 2012.
- Jenkins, Holman W. “A Hedge Fund's Neurotic Tipsters”. The Wall Street Journal (editorial). April 23, 2011.
- Gapper, John. “Anil Kumar’s Cheap Betrayal of McKinsey’s Soul”. The Financial Times (blog). January 8, 2010.
- Kim, Jim. “Life Of A Hedge Fund Informant: Easy Or Nerve-wracking?”. Fierce Finance (blog). March 16, 2011.
- Cohan, William D. “Why Is Enough Never Enough?”. The New York Times (blog). April 27, 2011.
- “Anil Kumar, Star Prosecution Witness”. The Wall Street Journal (blog). July 19, 2012.
- “Anil Kumar Seeks Leave of Absence From ISB Board”. The Economic Times. October 20, 2009.
- “The Global MBA Rankings”. The Financial Times. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Raghavan, Anita. The Billionaire's Apprentice: The Rise of The Indian-American Elite and The Fall of The Galleon Hedge Fund. Hachette, June 20133.
- Sharma, Amol and Joann Lublin. “A Star Partner's Galleon Arrest Shakes Up Ranks at McKinsey”. The Wall Street Journal. October 21, 2009.
- McDonald, Duff. “Galleon Scandal's Executive Conundrum”. CNN. October 23, 2009.
- McDonald, Duff. “Rajat Gupta: Touched By Scandal”. CNN. October 1, 2010.
- Duray, Dan. “Dealbook London Correspondent Scores Deal for Crisis Book”. The New York Observer. December 3, 2010.
- Lamont, James and Tom Burgis. “Elite Take Sides As Gupta Fights SEC Charges”. The Financial Times. March 8, 2011.
- Lattman, Peter. “On Tape, Galleon Founder Told of Possible Goldman Deals”. The New York Times. March 15, 2011.
- Lattman, Peter. “Rajat Gupta Charged with Insider Trading”. The New York Times. March 1, 2011.
- McCool, Grant and Dena Aubin. “McKinsey In Uncomfortable Rajaratnam Trial Glare”. Reuters. March 30, 2011.
- Rothfeld, Michael and Susan Pulliam. “Defense in Galleon Trial Bids to Discredit U.S.'s Star Witness”. The Wall Street Journal. March 16, 2011
- “Rajaratnam Lawyer, Key Witness Do Battle At Insider-Trading Trial”. Financial Alternatives. March 16, 2011.
- Raghavan, Anita. “Expert View On Galleon Insider Trading Trial”. NDTV. March 18, 2011.
- Van Voris, Bob, David Glovin and Patricia Hurtado. “Rajaratnam Lawyer Challenges Kumar’s Testimony on Insider Tips, Payments”. Bloomberg. Mar 16, 2011.