Anti-mitochondrial antibody

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Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria,[1] primarily mitochondria in cells of the liver. The presence of AMAs in the blood or serum of a person is indicative of several autoimmune diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (a scarring of liver tissue, confined primarily to the bile duct drainage system of the liver). It is present in about 95% of cases.[2]

Picture of immunofluorescence staining pattern of AMA antibodies.
Immunofluorescence staining pattern of AMA shown on stomach (top left), liver (top right), kidney (bottom left) and hep-20-10 cells (bottom right).

Primary biliary cirrhosis is seen primarily in middle-aged women, and in those afflicted with other autoimmune diseases. PBC is an autoimmune disorder, a condition in which the human body's immune defense system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells, or in this case parts of the cells.

Cause of AMAs is postulated that xenobiotic-induced and/or oxidative modification of mitochondrial autoantigens is a critical step leading to loss of tolerance. In acute liver failure AMA are found against all major liver antigens.[3]

Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are another type of AMA, cardiolipin is found on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Antigens[edit]

Several of the antigens associated with these antibodies have been identified.[4]

Antibodies to the antigens are associated with a number of conditions:[5] anti M2, M4, M8, and M9 are associated with primary bilary cirrhosis; M2 - autoimmune hepatititis; M1 - syphilis; M3 - drug-induced lupus erythematosus; M6 - drug-induced hepatitis; M7 - cardiomyopathy, myocarditis; M5 - systemic lupus erythematosus and undifferentiated collagenosis, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.[6]

These associations are not completely specific and should not be relied upon solely for diagnosis.

Antimitochondrial antibodies can also be found in Sjögren’s syndrome, systemic sclerosis, asymptomatic recurrent bacteriuria in women, pulmonary tuberculosis, and leprosy.

Correlation with non-mitochondrial antigens[edit]

Fifty-seven percent of acute liver failure patients had elevated anti-transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG), which correlate with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (see coeliac disease, gluten-sensitive enteropathy-associated conditions).[3] The inflammation produced by gluten-sensitive cellular immunity may cause the oxidative stress, resulting in the modification of mitochondrial antigens and acute liver failure. Anti-gp210 antibodies are also found in 47% of PBC patients.[7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003529
  2. ^ Oertelt S, Rieger R, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Ansari A, Coppel R, Podda M, Leung P, Gershwin M (2007). "A sensitive bead assay for antimitochondrial antibodies: Chipping away at AMA-negative primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology 45 (3): 659–65. doi:10.1002/hep.21583. PMID 17326160. 
  3. ^ a b Leung PS, Rossaro L, Davis PA, et al. (2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 46 (5): 1436–42. doi:10.1002/hep.21828. PMC 3731127. PMID 17657817. 
  4. ^ Berg PA, Klein R (1992) Antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis and other disorders: definition and clinical relevance. Dig Dis 10(2):85-101
  5. ^ Berg PA, Klein R (1986) Mitochondrial antigens and autoantibodies: from anti-M1 to anti-M9. Klin Wochenschr 64(19):897-909
  6. ^ Labro MT, Andrieu MC, Weber M, Homberg JC (1976) A new pattern of non-organ- and non-species-specific anti-organelle antibody detected by immunofluorescence: the mitochondrial antibody number 5. Clin Exp Immunol 31(3):357-366
  7. ^ Nickowitz RE, Worman HJ (1993). "Autoantibodies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis recognize a restricted region within the cytoplasmic tail of nuclear pore membrane glycoprotein Gp210". J. Exp. Med. 178 (6): 2237–42. doi:10.1084/jem.178.6.2237. PMC 2191303. PMID 7504063. 
  8. ^ Bauer A, Habior A (2007). "Measurement of gp210 autoantibodies in sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis". J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 21 (4): 227–31. doi:10.1002/jcla.20170. PMID 17621358.