Ardoyne (from Irish Ard Eoin, meaning "Eoin's height") is a working class and mainly Catholic and Irish nationalist district in north Belfast, Northern Ireland. It gained notoriety due to the large number of incidents during "The Troubles". It is home to approximately 20,000 inhabitants. Ardoyne is also famed as the birthplace of the former President of Ireland, Mary McAleese.
- 1 Foundation
- 2 The Troubles
- 3 Crumlin Road
- 4 Holy Cross dispute
- 5 Ardoyne's murals
- 6 Culture in Ardoyne
- 7 Ardoyne in popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
The village of Ardoyne was founded in 1815 when businessman Michael Andrews moved his Damask factory from Little York Street. In addition to the factory he built a large house for himself and thirty houses for employees to live in. More mills were built around the growing village and by 1850 there were three additional mills in the area, providing jobs and houses for a growing population.
Republican organisations have had a major influence in the area from the start of The Troubles in 1969. The rise in popularity of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) led to more police raids in the area, usually supported by the British Army. Internment (imprisonment without trial) affected many people in Ardoyne. Over the years after 1969, Provisional IRA membership in the area grew, so much so that it became one of the "no-go" areas listed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and Army, due to rising security risks and casualties suffered by the armed forces upon entering the district. Subsequent to the Troubles some dissident republican activity has been recorded in the area.
- 15 February: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper while taking part in a mobile-patrol in Ardoyne. Two British Army scout cars came under sniper fire and had a bomb thrown at them. The soldier was shot in the head.
- 23 August: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper on Flax Street in the Ardoyne area. The soldier was shot in the head as he exited a British armoured vehicle.
- 17 September: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper while on foot-patrol in Ardoyne.
- 1 October: A British soldier was shot dead in an IRA gun-attack on a British Army foot-patrol in the Ardoyne area.
- 21 December 1971: An unarmed IRA volunteer was shot after being captured by the British Army in Ardoyne.
- 18 May: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper on Flax Street.
- 23 July: An Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) soldier was kidnapped and shot dead by the IRA in Ardoyne.
- 14 August: A civilian was killed in the crossfire between an IRA unit and a British patrol in the Ardoyne area.
- 30 September: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper in Ardoyne.
- 28 February: A British soldier was killed in an IRA gun attack on a patrol in the Ardoyne area.
- 17 April 1973: An IRA volunteer was shot dead by a British Army sniper while standing talking with a number of men in Ardoyne.
- 10 June: The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) shot dead a Catholic civilian in the Deerpark Road area adjacent to Ardoyne.
- 25 November: The UDA shot dead a Protestant civilian outside Ewart's Mill. They had assumed he was a Catholic.
- 5 April: The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) shot dead a Catholic civilian as he walked home at Etna Drive.
- 2 May: The IRA shot dead a UDA member at his workplace, Ardoyne Bus Depot, on Ardoyne Road.
- 10 March: The IRA shot dead Sammy Smyth (former UDA spokesman) on Alliance Avenue.
- 13 March: An ex-British soldier was shot dead on Alliance Avenue.
- 5 June: The UDA carried out a drive-by shooting at the Crumlin Star Bar in Brompton Park. A Catholic civilian died of his wounds two days later. An RUC detective said it was a random sectarian attack.
- 24 October: Two British soldiers were killed when an IRA sniper team ambushed a British patrol in Ardoyne.
- 20 April: Two Catholic civilians were killed when the UVF exploded a bomb at the funeral of a Provisional IRA volunteer on Etna Drive.
- 27 February: An ex-British soldier was shot dead by the IRA in the Ardoyne area.
- 17 April: An IRA volunteer was shot dead by a British Army sniper on Flax Street.
- 28 August: A British soldier was shot dead by an IRA sniper while on foot patrol in the Ardoyne area.
- 5 January – Two members of the IRA, Francis Donnelly (24) and Lawrence Montgomery (24), were killed in Northwick Drive, Ardoyne, when the car bomb they were transporting exploded prematurely.
- 16 August: A civilian was accidentally shot dead by the IRA during a gun attack on an RUC patrol in Ardoyne.
- 10 March: An RUC officer was killed when the IRA detonated a remote controlled bomb at the Ardoyne Shops on the Crumlin Road. The RUC had been lured to the area by a hoax phone call claiming an armed robbery was in progress. The IRA had correctly anticipated which doorway the RUC would take cover in and detonated a small booby-trap bomb when they arrived. The IRA claimed his death was retaliation for "RUC brutality at republican funerals".
- 2 April: The UVF shot dead an IRA volunteer at his home in Ardoyne.
- 12 July: A former member of the Royal Air Force was shot dead by the IRA on Alliance Avenue. The IRA said it had intervened "to end an hour-long attack by loyalists on the area". Locals claimed the man had been attempting to stop youths from throwing stones and bottles into the nearby Catholic area. A 16-year-old was also wounded in the shooting.
- 21 February: The Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF) claimed responsibility for a gun and grenade attack on the home of a Sinn Féin councillor in Ardoyne.
- 12 March: The UFF claimed responsibility for shooting dead a Catholic civilian at his home on Alliance Avenue.
- 31 August: In an attack in Ardoyne, two British soldiers were wounded when the IRA detonated a car-bomb near their patrol.
- 21 September 1993: A British soldier was wounded when an IRA unit threw a blast-bomb at his patrol in the Ardoyne area.
- 13 March: A British soldier was injured by an IRA grenade in Ardoyne. Several people was arrested in the aftermath.
- 7 July: INLA gunmen fired on British soldiers in Ardoyne as part of the widespread violence that followed Mo Mowlam's decision over the Drumcree parade. See 1997 nationalist riots in Northern Ireland.
- 8 July: There was a gun battle between loyalist and IRA volunteers in Ardoyne. The IRA claim that two loyalist were wounded.
- 12 July : The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) was blamed for attacking PSNI officers with blast bombs during rioting in the Ardoyne area, following an Orange Order parade. Eighty officers were injured, one seriously, and several people were arrested.
- 13 July: The Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA) was blamed for shooting at the PSNI in the Ardoyne area during heavy rioting after an Orange Order parade.
- 11 September: The CIRA claimed responsibility for the punishment shootings of two men in the Ardoyne area.
Ardoyne is bordered on the west by the Crumlin Road, an area which has for the most part a majority Protestant population and forms an interface area. On the Twelfth and during the rest of the marching season parades held by the Orange Order have led to conflict between the two communities. Controversy has been sparked by the differing attitudes of the two communities to the marches, with the Orange Order and their supporters arguing that they are following traditional parade routes, whilst their nationalist critics argue that the marches are triumphalist and not wanted in their area.
For the most part the Parades Commission has given permission for the Twelfth marches to go past the flashpoint Ardoyne shops, close to the Crumlin Road roundabout which also leads on to the Woodvale Road. One particular cause of conflict is that, in the past, marchers have carried flags depicting Ulster Volunteer Force and Ulster Defence Association (paramilitary terrorist organisations) banners and played loyalist songs. In 2010, however, the Shankill Star flute band was banned from carrying a controversial banner depicting UVF member Brian Robinson. Another issue has been the presence and role of aggressive supporters following the march. The 2006 march agreement however determined that 'supporters' would not be allowed to march.
Since there are only two exits from the estate, residents on the opposite side of the Crumlin Road (Mountainview) are barricaded into their street by the police and Army for several hours throughout the day: in the morning when the march goes by; and in the evening when it returns. Local residents believe this to be a breach of their human rights. The Police Ombudsman concurs with this assessment but is of the opinion that the barriers are necessary for security reasons.
Unionists have highlighted the part republican organisations have played in protests including prominent convicted IRA men such as Sean Kelly who was arrested after violent protests during a parade.
Despite the local community group, the Ardoyne Parades Dialogue Group, and representatives of the march, the North and West Belfast Parades Forum, reaching an accommodation which imposed conditions on the march, golf balls and stones were thrown by protesters being kept back by stewards. Riots that broke out following the 2010 marches were blamed by Sinn Féin's Gerry Kelly on Real IRA members orchestrating tension in the area.
Holy Cross dispute
The Holy Cross Girls' School, a Catholic primary school which serves the Ardoyne area but is located in the neighbouring loyalist Upper Ardoyne/Glenbryn area was the sign of tension of 2001 to 2003. Loyalists made claims about harassment by republicans and regarding the use of the school run as a cover for IRA intelligence gathering missions, leading to crowds of protesters blocking the access of pupils to the school. The protests, which included violence directed by loyalist protesters at parents, were widely covered by the world's media and during the autumn of 2001 sparked a series of sectarian clashes in not only Ardoyne but also the interface between the loyalist Tiger's Bay area and the republican Newington and New Lodge districts. Loyalist protesters threw fireworks, excrement and bags of urine at children as young as four years of age and a pipebomb was thrown at schoolchildren with the intent to endanger life. The IRA were on ceasefire at this time and claims of harassment and intelligence gathering are disputed.[who?] The increase in sectarian tension in Ardoyne followed a loyalist feud in the lower Shankill and the expulsion of the UFF/UDA from that area.
Like most working class areas in Belfast, and others in the rest of Northern Ireland, Ardoyne's walls feature a number of murals related to politics and culture, although republican topics have been de-emphasised since 2009.
A mural on Ardoyne Avenue depicted victims of the famine with the legend "An Gorta Mor (The Great Hunger) – They buried us without shroud nor coffin" although this has since been removed. Another depicting a mass rock is still extant on the same street, although a further mural on Ardoyne Avenue showing Cuchulainn and a hound with the legend "Ard-Eoin Fleadh Cheoil" has also been removed. A mural demanding the truth about the killings of Pat Finucane and Rosemary Nelson is also gone. A mural on the street recalling the Holy Cross dispute and comparing it to the Little Rock Nine is recorded by CAIN as still in existence, although it too has been removed. A mural commemorating the Flight of the Earls was one of four painted in the area in 2009 to cover up those of a republican nature.
A number of other murals have also been painted on nearby Berwick Road. A Sinn Féin youth emblem with demands to disband the RUC and free republican prisoners has been removed, along with a portrait of James Connolly. A representation of the Virgin Mary remains in existence. It is close to a mural commemorating the 1916 Easter Rising. A mural in support of the Republican Network for Unity has been added to the same road.
Culture in Ardoyne
Football is a widely played and followed sport in the area. Ardoyne is close to the home ground of Irish Football League club Cliftonville, and as such the club enjoys a wide following in the area. Ardoyne itself is home to Crumlin Star F.C., an intermediate club that currently plays in Northern Amateur Football League Premier Division. However, despite originating in Ardoyne and having their headquarters in the area they do not have a home ground locally and for the 2013-14 season play their matches at the Cliff in Larne. Crumlin Star's social club is also a Celtic supporters club, with the Glasgow club enjoying strong popularity in the area and amongst the nationalist community in general.
The area is home to the annual "Ard Eoin Fleadh Cheoil" (Ardoyne Music Festival). The festival attracts some of the most famous Irish musical acts, including the Wolfe Tones. The offices for the event are based in Herbert Street in the area.
Ardoyne in popular culture
- Holy Cross Parish. "Parish History". Holy Cross Parish Church.
- Malcolm Sutton. "An Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland". CAIN.
- McKittrick, p.67
- McKittrick, p.93
- "A Chronology of the Conflict – 1972". CAIN.
- Malcolm Sutton. "Sutton Index of Deaths – 1973". CAIN.
- McKittrick, p.366
- CAIN: Chronology of the Conflict 1974
- CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths
- McKittrick, p.530
- CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths
- CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths
- McKittrick, p.643
- 1977 chronology
- "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". Cain.ulst.ac.uk.
- "Sutton Index of Deaths – 1979". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- "A Chronology of the Conflict – 1980". CAIN.
- CAIN Archived 17 February 2011 at WebCite
- CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths Archived 17 February 2011 at WebCite
- 1987 index of deaths
- McKittrick, p. 1064
- 1987 chronology
- McKittrick, p. 1087
- 1989 chronology
- 1989 index of deaths
- Peter Heathwood Collection of television programs: 1992. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN).
- CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths
- Fortnight, Issues 319–323, Fortnight Publications, 1993
- CAIN – Listing of Programmes for the Year: 1997 – UTV news, 13 March 1997
- CAIN – Listing of Programmes for the Year:1997– UTV news, 7 July 1997
- IRA engages Crown Forces An Phoblacht, 10 July 1997
- "80 officers injured during riot". BBC. 13 July 2005. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
- "Real IRA blamed for Belfast riots". BBC News. 14 July 2009.
- Continuity IRA claim Ardoyne shootings
- Cracks in the Orange Order BBC News, 15 July 2008
- Loyalist parade sparks riots in Catholic area The Guardian, 13 July 2004
- Parade Will Pass Ardoyne Flashpoint
- Apprentice Boys get go-ahead for Ardoyne march
- O'Loan clears police over parade
- Collins, Tim (2006). Rules of Engagement. London: Review. pp. 67–73. ISBN 978-0-7553-1375-4. OCLC 62796448.
- Minor disturbance at Orange march
- Police force Orange Order march through Ardoyne
- Holy Cross school, Belfast: two years on, Beatrix Campbell, The Guardian, 1 December 2003, retrieved 4 August 2009
- Interface, Flashpoints in Northern Ireland, Colm Heatley, Conflict Archive on the Internet
- How my daughter was cast into a maelstrom of hatred
- A Directory of Murals – Volume 6
- A Directory of Murals – Album 38
- Arts Council fund Ardoyne Re-imaging
- Crumlin Star site
- Crumlin Star at NAFL site
- Celtic Bars – B
- Ard Eoin Kickhams website
- Contact details
- Anna Burns: No Bones, 2001