- For others with this name, see Arrianus (disambiguation).
Lucius Flavius Arrianus
Nicomedia, Bithynia, Asia Minor
|Occupation||Historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher|
Arrian of Nicomedia, c. AD 86/89 – after 146/160  (//; Latin: Lucius Flavius Arrianus; Greek Ἀρριανός ) was born in Greece, and a historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
- 1 Arrian's life
- 2 Works
- 2.1 Voyage round the Euxine sea
- 2.2 Encheiridion, and the Discourses, of Epictetus
- 2.3 Ta meta tou Alexandrou (τα μετ' Αλέξανδρον)
- 2.4 Parthica
- 2.5 Bithyniaca
- 2.6 Nicomediensis Scripta minora
- 2.7 Indica ( Ινδικη )
- 2.8 Tekhne/Techne Taktika
- 2.9 Kynēgetikos (κυνηγετικός)
- 2.10 Ektaxis katà Alanon
- 2.11 biographical series
- 2.12 The Anabasis of Alexander
- 2.13 work of shared authorship
- 3 Sources, transmission, translations and publications
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
In respect to his birth date, sources provide similar dates for his birth; within a few years prior to 90,  89,  and 85 - 90 AD.  The line of reasoning for dates belonging to 85-90 AD is from the fact of Arrian being made a consul around 130 AD, and the usual age for this, during this period, being forty-two years of age. (ref. p.312, & SYME 1958, same page).
His family was from the provincial aristocracy of Greek stock, and his full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, indicates that he was a Roman citizen, suggesting that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the time of the Roman conquest some 170 years before.
Sometime during the 2nd century AD  (117 to 120 AD ) while in Epirus,  probably Nicopolis,  Arrian attended lectures of Epictetus of Nicopolis, and proceeded within a time to fall into pupillage of him, a fact attested to by Lucian.  All that is known about the life of Epictetus is due to Arrian,  in that Arrian left a Encheiridion (Handbook ) of Epictetus' philosophy.
a Roman of the first rank with a life-long attachment to learning— quote of Lucian in P. E. Easterling, B. M. W. Knox -p.143
this quality is identified as paideia  ( παιδεια ) which is the quality considered to be of one who is known as an educated and learned personage,id est, one who is highly esteemed and important. 
There are eight extant works (c.f. - Syvänne, foot of p. 260). The Indica and the Anabasis are the only works completely extant. The entire remaining are known as FGrH 156 to designate those collected fragments which exist. 
Voyage round the Euxine sea
Encheiridion, and the Discourses, of Epictetus
Some work was made of the lectures of Epictetus (see ref. below). Arrian was a pupil of Epictetus around 108 AD.
Arrian chose to transmit through auto-publication, his annotations or otherwise defined recordings of Epictetus, due to others thieving publications. 
The Encheiridion is a short compendium of all Epictetus' philosophical principles. It is also known as a handbook, and accordingly  A Mehl, professor at Martin Luther University c.2011, considers the Encheiridion as a vade mecum for Arrian (ref. p.181).
Photius states that Arrian produced two books the Dissertations and the Discourses.
JB Stockdale considered Arrian made eight books of which four were lost by the Middle Ages, of which the remaining were made to be the Discourses.  In a comparison of the contents of the Encheiridion with the Discourses, it is apparent that the former contains material not present within the latter, suggesting an original lost source for the Encheiridion.
Homiliai Epichtaeton (Ομιλίαι Έπικτήτου)
Ta meta tou Alexandrou (τα μετ' Αλέξανδρον)
Three extant fragments are the Vatican Palimsest  (of the 10th century AD ), PSI 12.1284  (Oxyrhynchus ), and the Gothenburg palimpsest  (of the 10th century also ), these possibly stemming originally from Photius.
A lost work  of seventeen books, fragments were maintained by the Suda and Stephen of Byzantium. The work survives only in states of adaptation made later by Photius and Syncellus. Translated, the title is History of the Parthians. Arrian's aim in the work, was to set forth events of the Parthian war of Trajan. The writing mentioned the Parthians trace their clan to Artaxerxes II.
Nicomediensis Scripta minora
Indica ( Ινδικη )
Indica is a work on a variety of things pertaining to India, and the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian Gulf. The first part of Indica was based largely on the work of the same name of Megasthenes, the second part based on a journal written by Nearchos.
Written 136/137 AD, (in the 20th year of Hadrian ), it is a treatise on Roman cavalry  and military tactics, and includes information on the nature, arms and discipline of the phalanx. The hippika gymnasia is particularly a concern of Arrian in the writing.
Scholarly opinion of why Arrian' wrote this text is; for the provision of genuinely useful information per military tacticians, produced in mind of the occasion of Hadrian's vicenallia, and, or, written specifically to curry favour vis-á-vis Hadrian.
Ektaxis katà Alanon
A work of a now fragmentary nature, the title is translated as Deployment against the Alani or  The order of battle against the Alans. It is thought not have been written as a presentation of facts but for literary reasons. Though while governor of Cappadocia, Arrian did still have to command the repelling of an invasion of the Alani, sometime during 135 AD, a struggle in which Arrian' two legions were victorious.
Ektaxis katà Alanon is also translated as Acies Contra Alanos  or referred to simply as Alanica (ref. p.262). The work was known for a time as A History of the Alani  ('Aλανικη or τά κατ' 'Aλανονς , via Photius ) a fragment describing a plan of battle contra the Alani was found in Milan c.17th century which was thought at that time to belong to the History. 
The Anabasis of Alexander
Sources, transmission, translations and publications
Everything known of his life derives from the 9th century writing of Photius in his Bibliotheca, and from those few references which exist within Arrian's writings.  The knowledge of the fact of his attaining consularship, is in the least as a result of literature produced by Suidas. Arnobius  (c.3rd century AD ) mentions Arrian  in regards to him recording Epictetus' teachings.  Arrian was also known of by Aulus Gellius. Pliny the Younger addressed seven of his epistles to him. 
The voyage of Nearchus and Periplus of the Erythrean Sea were translated from the Greek by the then Dean of Westminster, William Vincent, and published 1809. Vincent published a commentary in 1797 on The voyage of Nearchus.The work was also translated into French by M.Billecocq, under the auspices of the government (c.f. - p. 321).
Arrian's other works preserve the philosophy of Epictetus in Discourses of Epictetus (c. 108 AD), and include the Indica a description of Nearchus' voyage from India following Alexander's conquest, the Ars Tactica, and other short works.
- "Arrian". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian born c. AD 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur.] died c. AD 160, Athens? [Greece].
- FW Walbank - edited by F. W. Walbank (was Rathbone Professor of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology at the University of Liverpool and a Fellow of the British Academy), A. E. Astin. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press, 6 Sep 1984 ISBN 052123445X. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- "Arrian". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian (born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur.] died c. 160, Athens? [Greece]) Greek historian and philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.Wolfgang Haase, Hildegard Temporini (1990). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 2;Volume 34. Walter de Gruyter. p. 228. ISBN 3-11-010376-1.
Arrian was of Greek stock, from the provincial aristocracy of Bithynia. His full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, demonstrates that he was a Roman citizen and suggests that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the triumphal period. Arrian’s home city was the Bithynian capital, Nicomedia, where he held the priesthood of Demeter and Kore, its patron deities.Arrian; Sélincourt, Aubrey De (1971). The campaigns of Alexander. Penguin Classics. p. 13. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, to give him his full name, was a Greek, born at Nicomedia, the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia, probably a few years before A.D. 90.Grant, Michael (1992). Readings in the classical historians. Scribner's. p. 544. ISBN 0-684-19245-4.
ARRIAN: GREEK HISTORIAN Arrian was an approximate contemporary of Appian, born about AD 95. Like him a Greek, he came from Nicomedia ( Izmit ) in Bithynia (north-western Asia-Minor) where his family was prominent.
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- E. L. Wheeler, Flavius Arrianus: a political and military biography, Duke University, 1977.nn
- Cartledge, Paul; Romm, James S.; Strassler, Robert B.; Pamela Mensch (2010). The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-375-42346-X.
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- Livius, Arrian of Nicomedia by Jona Lendering
- Arrian On Coursing: the Cynegeticus William Dansey 1831
- Texts online
- Collected works: Flavii Arriani Quae exstant omnia, vol. 1 and vol. 2 edited A.G.Roos (1907)
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, Teubner monolingual Greek edition, edited by A.G. Roos (1907)
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E.J. Chinnock (1893)
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 1.13-16) (pdf, pp. 18-19), Battle of Granicus, from the Loeb Classical Library edition.
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 4.18.4-19.6), Sogdian Rock, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (Section 7.5.1-16) , translated by John Yardley
- Arrian, Cynegeticus,  translated and edited by William Dansey (1831)
- Arrian, Events after Alexander (from Photius' Bibliotheca) translated by John Rooke, edited by Tim Spalding
- Arrian, The Indica translated by E. Iliff Robson.
- Arrian, Array against the Alans (Ἔκταξις κατὰ Ἀλανῶν) translated by Sander van Dorst, with the Greek (transliterated) and copious notes.
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Anabasis, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Bithynica, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Parthica, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Events after Alexander, translated by J. S. Freese