Augustus B. Woodward

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Augustus B. Woodward
Judge Woodward.jpg
United States Judge for the Territory of Florida
In office
August 26, 1824 – July 12, 1827
Appointed by James Monroe
United States Judge for the Territory of Michigan
In office
March 3, 1805 – July 12, 1827
Appointed by Thomas Jefferson
Personal details
Born November 1774
Died July 12, 1827

Augustus Brevoort Woodward (born Elias Brevoort Woodward in November 1774, died July 12, 1827) was the first Chief Justice of the Michigan Territory. In that position, he played a prominent role in the planning and reconstruction of Detroit following a devastating fire.

Personal life[edit]

Woodward never married. His biographer, Arthur M. Woodford, describes Woodward as a prototype of Washington Irving’s Ichabod Crane. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall, thin, sallow, and stooped. His long, narrow face was dominated by a big nose. His only outward vestage of vanity was a generous crop of thick, black hair. His contemporaries commented on his slovenliness.

While in Washington, D.C., Woodward was described as "a man of middle age, a hardened bachelor who wore nut-brown clothing . . . he slept in his office which was never swept ... and was eccentric and erratic. His friends were few and his practice was so small that he hardly made a living."[1]

Michigan Territory[edit]

Woodward's plan following the 1805 fire for Detroit's baroque styled radial avenues and Grand Circus Park

President Thomas Jefferson appointed Woodward on March 3, 1805, as the Michigan Territory's first Chief Justice. When Woodward arrived in Detroit on June 30, 1805, he found the city in ruins from the devastating fire earlier that month on June 11. Few buildings were left standing.

Woodward, with Governor William Hull and associate Justices John Griffin and Frederick Bates, possessed all the legislative power in the Territory. Woodward and Griffin, along with the current Governor and a third judge, would hold this power from 1805 until the institution of a legislature in 1824. Woodward and Hull bickered almost constantly.

In 1807 as Territorial Justice of the Michigan Territory Woodward refused to allow the return of two slaves owned by a man in Windsor, Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). Woodward declared that any man “coming into this Territory is by law of the land a freeman.” [2]

Woodward and Hull developed a new plan for Detroit, in keeping with its status as the capital of the Territory. They based their work on Pierre L'Enfant's layout for Washington, D.C. (as shown in Woodward's notebook). Woodward's plan was ambitious, in line with the newly adopted city motto, Speramus Meliora, Resurgit Cineribus (“We hope for better days, it will rise again from the ashes”). For the first time in Detroit's history, attention shifted fully from its river to its roads. Woodward Avenue in Detroit, originally called Court House Avenue and other names, was popularly named after the justice's work in city planning and rebuilding. Woodward, somewhat in jest, claimed the road's name was simply related to the fact that it traveled toward the wooded area to the north of the city.[3]

Woodward proposed a system of hexagonal street blocks, with the Grand Circus at its center. Wide avenues, alternatively 200 feet and 120 feet, were designed to radiate from large circular plazas like spokes from the hub of a wheel. As the city grew, these would spread in all directions from the banks of the Detroit River. When Woodward presented his proposal, Detroit had fewer than 1,000 residents. The plan was abandoned after only 11 years, but not before some of its most significant elements had been implemented. Most prominent of these are the six main "spokes" of Woodward, Michigan, Grand River, Gratiot, and Jefferson avenues and Fort Street.[3]

During the War of 1812, Governor (and later Brigadier General) Hull surrendered Detroit to the British without a shot being fired in the Battle of Detroit. While Hull and Justices Bates and Griffin left, Woodward stayed and maintained his judicial status in Detroit during the British occupation. The British offered him the office of Secretary of the Territory, but Woodward declined that offer. Eventually, he became a problem for the British. He was asked to leave the territory and was granted safe passage to New York.

Later years[edit]

Considered a hero upon his return to Washington, DC, Woodward soon focused himself on science (a lifelong interest) and the establishment of the University of Michigan along similar themes to the University of Virginia which was founded by Woodward's friend, Thomas Jefferson.

It has been said that Woodward was among the first to recognize the coming of the scientific age. In 1816, he published his seminal work, A System of Universal Science.

With Reverend John Montieth and Father Gabriel Richard, Woodward drafted a charter for an institution he called the Catholepistemiad or the University of Michigania. On August 26, 1817, the Governor and Judges of the Michigan Territory signed the university act into law. This institution became the University of Michigan. It was ahead of its time. No mere charter, it was a detailed blueprint for the organization of a first class university.

Woodward was also a Freemason.

One of Woodward's legacies is the Woodward Code: a series of statutes serving as the basis of the Territorial Supreme Court legal procedures.

August 26, 1824, saw Woodward's return to the judiciary, as President James Monroe appointed him to a judgeship in the new Territory of Florida. Woodward served in that capacity until his death July 12, 1827, at the age of 52.

He is commemorated in a Michigan Legal Milestone erected by the State Bar of Michigan.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ross, Robert Budd (1907). The Early Bench and Bar of Detroit from 1805 to the End of 1850. Winder's Memories. Detroit: Richard P. Joy and Clarence M. Burton. p. 241. OCLC 14096631. 
  2. ^ "Slavery in the Northwest Territory". Absolute Michigan. Leelanau Communications. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Baulch, Vivian M. (June 13, 1999). "Woodward Avenue, Detroit's Grand old 'Main Street'". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  4. ^ "7. Augustus Woodward". Michigan Legal Milestones. State Bar of Michigan. Retrieved October 21, 2012. 

External links[edit]