Downtown Detroit

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Downtown Detroit
Central Business District
and residential area
Detroit's skyline as seen from Windsor, Ontario
Detroit's skyline as seen from Windsor, Ontario
Location of Downtown in relation to Midtown
Location of Downtown in relation to Midtown
Coordinates: 42°20′02″N 83°02′52″W / 42.33389°N 83.04778°W / 42.33389; -83.04778Coordinates: 42°20′02″N 83°02′52″W / 42.33389°N 83.04778°W / 42.33389; -83.04778
Country United States
State Michigan
County Wayne
City Detroit
Area
 • Total 1.4 sq mi (3.6 km2)
Population (2010)
 • Total 5,287
 • Density 3,671.5/sq mi (1,417.6/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s) 48201, 48226
Area code(s) 313

Downtown Detroit is the central business district and a residential area of the city of Detroit, Michigan, United States. Detroit is the major city in the larger Metro Detroit region. Downtown Detroit is bordered by the Lodge Freeway to the west, the Fisher Freeway to the north, Interstate 375 (The Chrysler Spur) to the east, and the Detroit River to the south. The city's main thoroughfare Woodward Avenue links Downtown to Midtown.

Downtown contains much historic architecture and many of the prominent skyscrapers in Detroit, including the Renaissance Center, the Penobscot Building, One Detroit Center, and the Guardian Building. Historic churches, theatres, and commercial buildings anchor the various downtown districts. Downtown has a number of parks including those linked by a promenade along the International Riverfront.

Overview[edit]

In recent years the downtown area has seen tremendous growth and development. Since 2000 a number of major construction projects have been completed including the new Compuware Headquarters at Campus Martius Park and two new stadiums: Comerica Park and Ford Field. General Motors moved their headquarters into the Renaissance Center, and the Detroit Lions have relocated from Pontiac to Downtown Detroit. High-profile events like the 2005 MLB All-Star Game, Super Bowl XL, and the 2006 and 2012 World Series have taken place in downtown, generating income for local businesses and spurring more growth.[1] As a result, new residents are moving into Detroit in the assortment of new lofts that are opening. An example of these trends is the Westin Book-Cadillac Hotel. In 2006, the Cleveland-based Ferchill Group began the $180 million redevelopment of the historic Book Cadlliac Hotel at the corner of Washington Blvd. and Michigan Avenue. The project, which has been hailed by preservationists houses a 455 room Westin Hotel, 67 high-end condominiums, and two to three restaurants, and some miscellaneous retail serving hotel and conference center guests. DTE Energy Headquarters features an urban oasis of parks, walkways, and a reflecting pool.[2]

In 2007, Downtown Detroit was named among the best big city neighborhoods in which to retire by CNN Money Magazine editors.[3] Downtown contains popular destinations including, the International Riverfront, the MGM Grand Detroit, Greektown Casino Hotel, and many sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Downtown Detroit hosts 80,500 workers which make up about one-fifth of the city's total employment base; in addition, it is home to about 5,300 residents. Downtown offers a number of residential high rises, including Riverfront Towers.[4][5]

The Renaissance Center contains the Detroit Marriott hotel, General Motors headquarters, as well as many shops and restaurants. Compuware has its headquarters in the Compuware World Headquarters building by Campus Martius Park in Downtown Detroit.[6] Compuware moved its headquarters and 4,000 employees to Downtown Detroit in 2003.[7] Little Caesars and Olympia Entertainment have their headquarters in the Fox Theatre.[8][9] Ernst & Young has offices in One Kennedy Square on Campus Martius Park. Pricewaterhouse Coopers has offices in a building across from Ford Field. Chrysler maintains executive offices at Chrysler House in the city's Financial District. In 2011, Quicken Loans moved its headquarters and 4,000 employees to downtown. Comerica Bank and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan are also major employers downtown.

Districts[edit]

St. John's Episcopal Church on Woodward Avenue near Grand Circus
Name Image Location Summary
Bricktown Historic District DetroiterBar 655 Beaubien St.jpg Separates the Renaissance Center from Greektown. Bricktown separates the Renaissance Center from Greektown.[10] Bricktown is home to St. Peter and Paul's Catholic Church, the oldest standing church in Detroit, and the Italian Renaissance style Wayne County Building (which was saved from demolition in the early 1980s). The Wayne County Courthouse, once located in the Wayne County Building, was the place where Mae West was once a defendant on a charge of public indecency. Bricktown is notable for its live music venues. Jacoby's German Biergarten (1904), the city's oldest surviving pub, provides a small performance space for up & coming acts. St. Andrew's Hall is a venue for nationally touring acts, as is the Shelter in the basement of St. Andrew's.
Broadway Avenue Historic District Broadway Avenue Historic District.jpg Broadway between Gratiot and Grand River Boulevard
42°20′6″N 83°2′46″W / 42.33500°N 83.04611°W / 42.33500; -83.04611 (Broadway Avenue Historic District)
The Broadway Avenue Historic District is located along a single block of Broadway Avenue, and contains eleven commercial buildings built between 1896 and 1926. The area was developed in the late 1800s as a commercial area catering to the women's trade, and included businesses such as hairdressers, florists, corset makers, and fashionable clothiers. Three buildings in the district — the Cary Building, Harmonie Centre, and the Merchants Building — are individually listed on the NHRP.
Campus Martius Park Woodward Fountaindetroit.jpg 42°19′53″N 83°2′48″W / 42.33139°N 83.04667°W / 42.33139; -83.04667 Woodward Ave. Campus Martius is a historic district and central gathering place which contains parks, Woodward Fountain, the Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, and a large traffic circle surrounded by commercial and residential high-rises including 1001 Woodward Avenue. Since the traffic circles restoration and expansion, it has emerged as a central gathering spot downtown with a mainstage.
Capitol Park Historic District Capitol Park Detroit MI.jpg Roughly bounded by Grand River Ave., Woodward Ave., Michigan Ave., and Washington Boulevard
42°19′58″N 83°2′58″W / 42.33278°N 83.04944°W / 42.33278; -83.04944 (Capitol Park Historic District)
Capitol Park itself is a triangular plot of land (now a public park) bounded by Shelby Street, Griswold Street, and State Street. A courthouse was built in Capitol Park in 1823-28; when Michigan became a state in 1837, the building served as the state capitol. The Historic District includes the park and seventeen surrounding buildings for a block in each direction, including the Farwell Building, the Griswold Building, the David Stott Building, and the Industrial-Stevens Apartments.
Detroit Financial District DavidStottsitsamongDetroittowers.jpg Bounded by Woodward and Jefferson and Lafayette and Washington Boulevard
42°19′46.36″N 83°2′50.43″W / 42.3295444°N 83.0473417°W / 42.3295444; -83.0473417 (Detroit Financial District)
This is the historic financial district of Detroit which dates to the 1850s and contains prominent skyscrapers. Ornate skyscrapers in Detroit (including the Guardian Building, the Penobscot Building, and One Woodward Avenue), reflecting two waves of large-scale redevelopment: the first in 1900–1930 and the second in the 1950s and early 1960s.
Grand Circus Park Historic District Grand Circus Park elevated angle - Detroit Michigan.jpg Roughly bounded by Clifford, John R. and Adams Sts.; also 25 W. Elizabeth
42°20′10″N 83°3′2″W / 42.33611°N 83.05056°W / 42.33611; -83.05056 (Grand Circus Park Historic District)
Grand Circus Park Historic District contains the 5-acre (2.0 ha) Grand Circus Park, bisected by Woodward Avenue. Notable buildings encircling the park include the David Broderick Tower and David Whitney Building on the south, the Kales Building, Comerica Park, the Fox Theatre, and the Detroit Opera House may be accessed from Grand Circus Park. St. John's Episcopal Church and the Central United Methodist Church are among the many churches and cathedrals on Woodward Ave.
Greektown Historic District Greektownnew2.jpg Monroe Ave., between Brush and St. Antoine Sts.
42°20′6″N 83°2′32″W / 42.33500°N 83.04222°W / 42.33500; -83.04222 (Greektown Historic District)
Greektown is a primarily commercial district that extends two city blocks. It includes St. Mary Roman Catholic Church, Second Baptist Church, separately listed on the Register, Greektown Casino Hotel, and the Athenium Suite Hotel. The district contains numerous restaurants and Greek-themed shops.
West Jefferson Avenue DPMoverRenCenstop.jpg West Jefferson Avenue runs parallel to downtown along the International Riverfront which contains the Renaissance Center, Cobo Center, a cruise ship terminal and dock, residential high rises, and a prominade of parks and marinas extending to Belle Isle. The towering Riverfront Condominiums are among the high-rise residential areas along the riverfront. The University of Detroit Mercy College of Law is across from the Renaissance Center along Jefferson Avenue. The People Mover serves the Renaissance Center and the Cobo Center along the riverfront. The Detroit People Mover stops at the Renaissance Center along West Jefferson Ave.
Lower Woodward Avenue Historic District 1400-1456 Woodward Detroit MI.jpg 1202–1449 and 1400–1456 Woodward Ave.
42°20′3″N 83°2′56″W / 42.33417°N 83.04889°W / 42.33417; -83.04889 (Lower Woodward Avenue Historic District)
The Lower Woodward Avenue Historic District contains thirty-four commercial buildings built at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, many by noted architects. It contains the downtown's historic street-side shopping district.
Monroe Avenue Commercial Buildings 118monroedetroit.jpg 16-118 Monroe Ave.
42°19′58″N 83°2′45″W / 42.33278°N 83.04583°W / 42.33278; -83.04583 (Monroe Avenue Commercial Buildings)
The National Theatre (1911) at 118 Monroe Ave., the oldest surviving theatre in Detroit, is a part of the city's original theatre district from the late 1800s. Albert Kahn designed the theatre.
Park Avenue Historic District ParkAvenueDistrictDetroit.jpg Park Ave., between W. Adams Ave. and W. Fisher Freeway
42°20′12″N 83°3′49″W / 42.33667°N 83.06361°W / 42.33667; -83.06361 (Park Avenue Historic District)
In the 1920s, Detroit's prestigious Grand Circus Park was crowded with buildings and development began to spill north from Grand Circus Park up Park Avenue. In 1923, the Park Avenue Association was formed. They planned the street to concentrate high-grade commercial and office space at the south end, and prestigious residential development at the north end, much like New York City's Fifth Avenue. The district includes the Women's City Club, the Park Avenue House, and the Kales Building.
Randolph Street Commercial Buildings Historic District Randolph Street Detroit.jpg 1208–1244 Randolph St.
42°20′4″N 83°2′42″W / 42.33444°N 83.04500°W / 42.33444; -83.04500 (Randolph Street Commercial Buildings Historic District)
Buildings along this section of Randolph Street have been used for retail since the area was first built up in the 1840s; the building at 1244 Randolph was built during the period of original construction. As the city grew, larger commercial buildings were required and the other structures on Randolph were constructed.
Washington Boulevard Historic District Macomb standing guard over Washington Blvd., Detroit.jpg Washington Boulevard, between State and Clifford Sts.
42°19′59″N 83°3′4″W / 42.33306°N 83.05111°W / 42.33306; -83.05111 (Washington Boulevard Historic District)
This district includes the Book-Cadillac Hotel, the Book Tower, the Industrial-Stevens Apartments, and Washington Square (Trolley Plaza) among other architecturally significant buildings. The Detroit Statler Hotel was located on the boulevard until it was demolished in 2005. The street was broadened and ornamented in the early part of the twentieth century to resemble New York's Fifth Avenue and European boulevards.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1990 5,990
2000 6,141 2.5%
2010 5,287 −13.9%

As of the 2010 Census, there were 5,287 people residing in the district. The population density was 3,671.5 people per square mile (1,417.6/km²). There were 4,572 housing units. The census reported the district residents as 63.6% Black, 28.2% White, 4.0% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.6% other races, 3.0% two or more races, and 3.3% Hispanic.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

Rosa Parks bus terminal in downtown Detroit

The city of Detroit offices are located in the Coleman Young Municipal Building. The Guardian Building serves as headquarters for Wayne County. Detroit Fire Department has its headquarters in Downtown Detroit.[11] The Detroit Police Department has its headquarters in Downtown Detroit.[12] The Central District patrol division of the police department serves Downtown Detroit.[13]

Transportation[edit]

The Detroit Greyhound Lines station is directly west of Downtown along the John C. Lodge Freeway.[14] The Detroit Department of Transportation system provides mass-transit by bus. The Detroit People Mover, a 2.9-mile (4.7 km) automated people mover system, operates on a single-track, one-way loop through the downtown area. Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation has its headquarters in the Buhl Building in Downtown Detroit.[15]

Image Station Location
People Mover monorail bridge at the Renaissance Center
Detroitpeoplemovermap.gif
Broadway Station Broadway and John R. Street (downtown YMCA)
Grand Circus Park Station Park Street & Woodward Avenue (David Whitney Building)
Times Square Station Grand River Avenue & Times Square
Michigan Avenue Station Michigan Avenue & Cass Avenue
Fort/Cass Station Fort Street & Cass Avenue
Cobo Center Station Cass Street & Congress Street (Cobo Hall)
Joe Louis Arena Station 3rd Street & Jefferson Avenue (Joe Louis Arena)
Financial District Station Larned Street & Shelby Street (150 West Jefferson)
Millender Center Station Millender Center Apartments
Renaissance Center Station Renaissance Center
Bricktown Station Beaubien Street & East Fort Street
Greektown Station East Lafayette Street (Greektown Historic District)
Cadillac Center Station Gratiot Avenue & Library Street

Economy[edit]

Companies with headquarters in Downtown Detroit include Compuware,[16] Dickinson Wright,[17][18][19] General Motors,[20] Little Caesars,[21] Miller Canfield,[22] and Quicken Loans.[23]

Previously Comerica Bank had its headquarters in Downtown Detroit.[24] On March 6, 2007, the company announced its decision to relocate its corporate headquarters to Dallas.[25] The company executives began moving to Dallas in November 2007.[26] At one time Real Times Media, the owner of black newspapers in the United States, had its headquarters in the Globe Tobacco Building,[27] and later the Buhl Building.[28]

Media[edit]

The Detroit News and Free Press Building

The Detroit Media Partnership, housing both The Detroit News and the Detroit Free Press, has its headquarters in Downtown Detroit.[29]

The Metro Times was previously headquartered in the Detroit Cornice and Slate Company Building in Downtown.[30]

Entertainment[edit]

Downtown Detroit has seen a major growth in entertainment [31][32] in the past decade. Campus Martius Park is open year-round, with ice skating in the winter with a huge Christmas tree display, to a large fountain and many concerts in the summer. Downtown Detroit has also seen major growth in retail, such as Michigan-based Moosejaw outdoor clothing. In December 2012, the largest Buffalo Wild Wings in the country opened in the district, and a new mixed-use development by CEO Dan Gilbert, businessman, and developer, The Z, due to its Z-like shape, with 1,300 parking spaces, artwork, LED lighting, and 33,000-square-feet of street level retail space, opened January 30, 2014.

Education[edit]

Skillman Branch of the Detroit Public Library

Colleges and universities[edit]

The University of Detroit Mercy School of Law is located downtown across from the Renaissance Center. Wayne County Community College District (WCCCD) has its headquarters in Downtown Detroit.[33] The Downtown Campus of the district is located adjacent to Downtown Detroit and adjacent to the WCCCD headquarters.[34] Wayne State University is located in Midtown Detroit. The Corktown Campus, near downtown at 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, houses the University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry and Dental Clinic. The main campus of the University of Detroit Mercy is located uptown.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

The Detroit Public Schools, charter schools, and private schools serve city residents. Downtown residents enrolled in the public school system are zoned for Martin Luther King High School.[35] Some downtown residents are zoned for Burton K-8 for elementary school, while others are zoned to Chrysler Elementary School.[36] Burton K-8 and Bunche K-8 serve portions of Downtown for Middle School.[37]

Previously Dewey K-8 served portions of Downtown Detroit for elementary school.[38] Previously Miller Middle School,[39] and Duffield Middle School served portions of Downtown Detroit.[40] Previously Murray-Wright High School served Downtown Detroit for high school.[41]

The Archdiocese of Detroit lists a number of primary and secondary schools in the city, along with those in the metro area.[42][43] There are 23 Catholic high schools in the Archdiocese of Detroit.[44] Of the three Catholic high schools in the city, two are operated by the Society of Jesus and the third is co-sponsored by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Congregation of St. Basil.[44][45]

Public libraries[edit]

The Detroit Public Library operates the Rose and Robert Skillman Branch Library downtown at 121 Gratiot with the library headquarters located in Midtown. The downtown branch first opened January 4, 1932. Skillman received its current name after the Skillman Foundation donated to the library system.[46]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

Two consulates are located in the Renaissance Center; the Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit is located on the 16th Floor of the 400 Tower,[47] and the Consulate-General of Canada in Detroit is located in Suite 1100 of the 600 Tower.[48] The Consulate of Italy in Detroit is located in Suite 1840 in the Buhl Building.[49] The Consulate of Mexico in Detroit is located in Suite 830 in the Penobscot Building.[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Detroit Free Press (2006-11-06)
  2. ^ July 4, 2007 Detroit News Downtown Detroit Partnership
  3. ^ Bigda, Carolyn, Erin Chambers, Lawrence Lanahan, Joe Light, Sarah Max, and Jennifer Merritt.Detroit Best place to retire: Downtown. CNN Money Magazine. Retrieved on October 22, 2007.
  4. ^ Downtown Detroit In Focus: A Profile of Market Opportunity, October 2006 - The Urban Markets Initiative, Brookings Institute Metropolitan Policy Program, Social Compact, Inc. & University of Michigan Graduate Real Estate Program. Retrieved on May 5, 2009
  5. ^ Snell, Robert. "GM CEO Henderson to give update on restructuring Friday." The Detroit News. Thursday April 16, 2009. Retrieved on April 20, 2009.
  6. ^ "Directions to Compuware Headquarters." Compuware. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  7. ^ "Decade in review: Business." The Detroit News. December 31, 2009. Retrieved on January 7, 2010.
  8. ^ "About Us." Olympia Entertainment. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  9. ^ "Franchise Opportunities." Little Caesars. 5/5. retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  10. ^ Cityscape Detroit - see neighborhoods
  11. ^ "Fire Department." City of Detroit. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  12. ^ "Police Department." City of Detroit. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  13. ^ "Central District Location." Detroit Police Department. Retrieved on November 2, 2009.
  14. ^ "Detroit, Michigan." Greyhound Lines. Retrieved on May 4, 2009.
  15. ^ "Contact SMART." Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation. Retrieved on November 11, 2009.
  16. ^ "Contact Us." (Archive) Compuware. Retrieved on November 23, 2013. "Compuware Corporation World Headquarters 1 Campus Martius Detroit, MI 48226"
  17. ^ "Home." (Archive) Dickson Wright. March 4, 2000. Retrieved on November 23, 2013. "Dickinson Wright PLLC Counsellors at Law 500 Woodward Avenue, Suite 4000 Detroit, Michigan 48226-3425"
  18. ^ "Dickinson Wright gaming practice enters Europe with law firm agreement in Bulgaria." Crain's Detroit Business. November 12, 2013. Modified November 13, 2013. Retrieved on November 23, 2013. "Detroit-based law firm Dickinson Wright PLLC announced Tuesday a cooperation agreement with Velchev & Co., a law firm based in Sofia, Bulgaria."
  19. ^ "Dickinson Wright renews One Detroit Center lease." Crain's Detroit Business. December 3, 2007. Retrieved on November 23, 2013.
  20. ^ Haglund, Rick. "GM sales chief Mark LaNeve leaving; headquarters to remain at Renaissance Center in Detroit." (Archive) 'MLive. October 7, 2009. Retrieved on November 23, 2013.
  21. ^ "Franchise Opportunities." (Archive) Little Caesars. 5/5. Retrieved on November 2, 2009. "2211 Woodward Ave. • Detroit, MI 48201"
  22. ^ "Offices." (Archive) Miller Canfield. Retrieved on November 29, 2013. "Detroit 150 West Jefferson Suite 2500 Detroit, Michigan 48226".
  23. ^ "Contact Us." (Archive) Quicken Loans. Retrieved on November 23, 2013. "Quicken Loans - Main Office - Compuware 1050 Woodward Avenue Detroit, MI 48226"
  24. ^ "Comerica Corporate Profile." (Archive) Comerica Bank. November 22, 2003. Retrieved on November 23, 2013. "Accessing Comerica Comerica Tower at Detroit Center 500 Woodward Ave., MC3391 Detroit, Michigan 48226 "
  25. ^ "Company Press Release" (Archive) Comerica Bank. March 6, 2007. Retrieved on November 23, 2013.
  26. ^ Hethcock, Bill. "Large ad agency cites area's vibrancy in decision to return." Dallas Business Journal. December 9, 2007. p. 2. Retrieved October 17, 2010. "In August, Comerica Inc. announced it would move into the skyscraper, formerly known as Bank One Center, when the banking and financial firm relocated its headquarters from Detroit. Comerica leased five floors -- 164,000 square feet -- and the building was renamed to reflect its new lead tenant. Comerica executives began moving in last month."
  27. ^ "Home." (Archive) Real Times Media. June 17, 2007. Retrieved on December 11, 2013. "Headquarters: The Globe Building • 407 E. Fort Street • Suite 410 • Detroit, MI • 48226 "
  28. ^ "Home." (Archive) Real Times Media. December 3, 2007. Retrieved on December 11, 2013. "Headquarters: The Buhl Building • 535 Griswold Street • Suite 1300 • Detroit, MI • 48226 "
  29. ^ "Contact Us." (Archive) Detroit Media Partnership. Retrieved on January 1, 2014. "Mailing Address Detroit Media Partnership 615 W. Lafayette Blvd. Detroit, MI 48226"
  30. ^ "FAQs." Metrto Times. March 19, 2011. Retrieved on January 1, 2014. "Metro Times 733 St. Antoine Detroit, MI 48226"
  31. ^ Firsts and facts Detroit Tourism Economic Development Council. Retrieved on July 24, 2008.
  32. ^ Arts & Culture Detroit Economic Growth Corporation. Retrieved on July 24, 2008. "Detroit is home to the second largest theatre district in the United States."
  33. ^ Homepage. Wayne County Community College District. Retrieved on November 11, 2009.
  34. ^ "Downtown Campus." Wayne County Community College District. Retrieved on November 11, 2009.
  35. ^ "High School Boundaries - 2012/13 School Year." (Archive) Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on November 1, 2012.
  36. ^ "Elementary Boundaries - 2012/13 School Year." (Archive) Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on November 1, 2012.
  37. ^ "Middle School Boundaries - 2012/13 School Year." (Archive) Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on November 1, 2012.
  38. ^ "Elementary School Attendance Areas." Detroit Public Schools. July 10, 2003. Retrieved on November 2, 2012.
  39. ^ "Middle School Attendance Areas." Detroit Public Schools. July 10, 2003. Retrieved on November 2, 2012.
  40. ^ "Middle School Boundary Map." Detroit Public Schools. Retrieved on November 7, 2009.
  41. ^ "High School Attendance Areas." Detroit Public Schools. July 10, 2003. Retrieved on November 2, 2012.
  42. ^ "Detroit Catholic high school "sees God in the challenges" [Education Report]". Educationreport.org. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  43. ^ Pratt, Chastity, Patricia Montemurri, and Lori Higgins. "PARENTS, KIDS SCRAMBLE AS EDUCATION OPTIONS NARROW." Detroit Free Press. March 17, 2005. A1 News. Retrieved on April 30, 2011.
  44. ^ a b "Archdiocese of Detroit – Schools". Aodonline.org. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  45. ^ "About | Detroit Cristo Rey High School". Detroitcristorey.org. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  46. ^ "Skillman Branch Library." Detroit Public Library. Retrieved on April 19, 2009.
  47. ^ "Location." Consulate-General of Japan, Detroit. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.
  48. ^ "Office Location." Consulate-General of Canada in Detroit. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.
  49. ^ "Welcome to the web site of the Consulate of Italy in Detroit." Consulate of Italy in Detroit. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.
  50. ^ "Bienvenidos." Consulate of Mexico in Detroit. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.

External links[edit]