Banksia seminuda

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River Banksia
Banksia seminuda AD MB.jpg
B.seminuda cultivated in
Mount Barker, Western Australia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae
Genus: Banksia
Subgenus: Banksia subg. Banksia
Section: Banksia sect. Oncostylis
Series: Banksia ser. Spicigerae
Species: B. seminuda
Binomial name
Banksia seminuda
(A.S.George) B.Rye

Banksia seminuda, commonly known as the River Banksia, is a tree in the plant genus Banksia. It is found in south west Western Australia from Dwellingup (32°42′ S) to the Broke Inlet east of Denmark (34°57′ S). It is often mistaken for, and was originally considered a subspecies of, the Banksia littoralis (Swamp Banksia). One of the tallest Banksia species, the River Banksia has a shrub subspecies remanens.


The River Banksia grows up to 20 metres (65 ft) tall with a usually brown to grey trunk covered with a hard grey fissured bark. The tree trunks are often straight and tall as the species grows in sheltered forest areas.

Flowering occurs between late summer and late winter. The yellow (occasionally red) flower spikes grow up to 200 mm (8 in) long by 70 mm (3 in) wide, the fruiting cones can remain on the trees for many years after shedding the flowers early. Its leathery leaves are between 70 mm (3 in) and 120 mm (5 in) long with fine teeth, subspecies remanens leaves have few if any teeth except at the tips of the leaves.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This tree is found on the fringes of the rivers and creeks in Jarrah, Marri and Karri forests, between Dwellingup and Denmark. Stephen Hopper described the subspecies remanens as a short-leaved shrubby form found in the coastal sands below granite outcrops in the Walpole-Nornalup National Park, however George does not feel this form warrants taxonomic recognition as it lies within the normal variability of the species and there was no clear distinction between it and the other populations of B. seminuda.[1]


B. seminuda lies within the series Spicigerae and is clearly very closely related to B. littoralis.


An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on this species found that its range is likely to contract by between 30% and 80% by 2080, depending on the severity of the change.[2]


fissured trunk on 20 year old tree, Banksia Farm, Mount Barker, WA

B. seminuda is a vigorous and adaptable plant. There are reports of seedlings coming up near cultivated plants in Victoria which suggests caution should be advised if planting near bushland.


  1. ^ George, A. S. (1996). "Notes on Banksia L. f". Nuytsia 11 (1): 21–24. 
  2. ^ Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gove, Aaron D.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R. (2008). "Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: the Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia". Global Change Biology 14 (6): 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01559.x. 


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