Classification of swords

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The English-language terminology used in the classification of swords is imprecise, and has varied widely over time, with terms such as "broadsword", "long sword", "short-sword", "bastard sword", "side-sword" and "two-handed sword" being used to group together weapons, often with no particular agreed upon definition, relation to one another in regards their technology, and construction or intended use and fighting style. However, in modern times many of these have been given specific meanings (although sometimes quite arbitrarily). Some of these terms originate contemporary with the weapon they refer to, others are modern or early modern terms used by antiquarians, curators, and modern-day sword enthusiasts for historical swords.

Terminology was further complicated by terms introduced (i.e. "hand-and-a-half sword", "single-handed sword", "Pappenheimer",[1][2] "Walloon sword", "Sinclair Sabre", "Mortuary sword", "spada da lato", "town sword", etc.) or misinterpreted (i.e. bastard sword, broadsword,[3][4] rapier,[5] estoc, flamberge, etc.) in the 19th century by antiquarians, and in 20th century pop culture (sword and sorcery, role playing games, fighting games, etc.). Also the addition of new terms to the mix such as "great sword", "Zweihänder" (instead of Bidenhänder), and "cut-and-thrust sword". Historical European Martial Arts associations have turned the term spada da lato, a term that was coined by Italian curators, into "side-sword". Furthermore, there is a disregard for the use of the term broadsword by these associations. All these newly introduced or redefined sword terms add to the confusion of the matter.

The most well known systematic typology of blade types of the European medieval sword is the Oakeshott typology (although this is a modern classification and not a medieval one, and has many overlaps). Elizabethans used descriptive terms such as "short", "bastard", and "long" which emphasized the length of the blade, and "two-handed" for any sword that could be wielded as such.

Classification by "Hilt-Type"[edit]


The term two-handed sword, used as a general term, may refer to any large sword designed to be used primarily with two hands:

The term "hand-and-a-half sword" is modern (late 19th century).[6] During the first half of the 20th century, the term "bastard sword" was used regularly to refer to this type of sword, while "long sword" or "long-sword", if used at all, referred to the rapier (in the context of Renaissance or Early Modern fencing).[7]

The term "single-handed sword" (or "one-handed sword") is a retronym coined to disambiguate from "two-handed" or "hand-and-a-half" specimens. "Single-handed sword" is used by Sir Walter Scott.[8] It is also used as a possible gloss of the obscure term tonsword by Nares (1822);[9] "one-handed sword" is somewhat later, recorded from c. 1850.

Apparently, some swords were designed for left-hand use, although left-handed swords have been described as "a rarity".[10]

Great sword[edit]

These include the long swords in both the Middle Ages[11][12][13][dubious ] and Renaissance, like the "outsized specimens" - between 90 cm and 120 cm - such as the Oakeshott type XIIa or Oakeshott type XIIIa. These swords can be wielded with either one hand or with two hands, but their grip may be designed specifically for one hand, two hands, or the “hand-and-half” grip where the off-hand grips the pommel, depending on the preference of the wielder.


The Scottish name Claymore (Gaelic claidheamh mor, lit. "great sword")[14][15] can refer to either the longsword with a distinctive two-handed grip, or the basket-hilted sword[citation needed] developing from a rapier.[citation needed]


The Bidenhänder or two-hander is the "true" two-handed sword.

The Bidenhänder was a specialist weapon wielded by certain Landsknechte Doppelsöldners. It is highly doubtful that these two-handed swords were used to chop off the point of pikes; however, the two-handed sword was an ideal weapon for protecting the standard bearer or a breach since a Doppelsöldner armed with one could fend off many attackers by using moulinets.

Classification by "Blade-Type"[edit]

Double-edge and Straight swords[edit]

These are double-edged, usually straight bladed swords.

Longsword and bastard sword[edit]

These days, the term longsword most frequently refers to a late Medieval and Renaissance weapon designed for use with two hands. The German langes Schwert ("long sword") in 15th-century manuals did not necessarily denote a type of weapon, but the technique of fencing with both hands at the hilt.[citation needed]

Contemporary use of "long-sword" or "longsword" only resurfaces in the 2000s in the context of reconstruction of the German school of fencing, translating the German langes Schwert.[citation needed]

The French épée bâtarde as well as the English bastard sword originates in the 15th or 16th century,[citation needed] originally as having the general sense of "irregular sword or sword of uncertain origin". Qui n'étoit ni Françoise, ni Espagnole, ni proprement Lansquenette, mais plus grande que pas une de ces fortes épées ("[a sword] which was neither French, nor Spanish, nor properly Landsknecht [German], but longer than any of these sturdy swords.")[16] Espée bastarde could also historically refer to a single-handed sword with a fairly long blade compared to other short swords.[17]

Joseph Swetnam states that the bastard sword is a sword that is midway in length between a short sword and a long sword,[18] and Randall Cotgrave's definition seems to imply this as well. The French épée de passot, was also known as épée bâtarde[citation needed] (i.e., bastard sword) and also coustille à croix[19] (literally a cross-hilted blade), referred to a medieval single-handed sword optimized for thrusting[20] The épée de passot was the sidearm of the franc-archers (French / Breton bowmen of the 15th and 16th centuries).[21] The term passot comes from the fact that these swords passed (passaient) the length of a "normal" short-sword.[21] The German term for a bastard sword was Reitschwert (literally a riding sword),[22][23] " the early Renaissance the term bastard-sword was also sometimes used to refer to single-hand arming-swords with compound-hilts. A form of German arming sword with a bastard-style compound hilt was called a "Reitschwert" ("cavalry sword") or a "Degen" ("knight's sword")".[24]

The Masters of Defence competition organised by Henry VIII in July 1540 listed[25] two hande sworde, bastard sworde and longe sworde as separate items (as it should in Joseph Swetnam's context).[26][27][28]

Antiquarian usage in the 19th century established the use of "bastard sword" as referring unambiguously to these large swords.[29] However, George Silver and Joseph Swetnam refer to them merely as "two hande sworde". The term "hand-and-a-half sword" is modern (late 19th century).[6] During the first half of the 20th century, the term "bastard sword" was used regularly to refer to this type of sword.[7]

The Elizabethan long sword (c.f. George Silver[30] and Joseph Swetnam) is a single-handed "cut-and-thrust" sword with a 4-foot-long (1.2 m) blade[18] similar to the long rapier. "Let thy (long) Rapier or (long) Sword be foure foote at the least, and thy dagger two foote. Historical (15th to 16th century) terms for this type of sword included the Italian spada longa (lunga), and French longue épée.

The term longsword has also been used to refer to different kinds of sword depending on historical context:


The basket-hilted sword was a military sword, termed "broad" in contrast with the smallsword.[citation needed]

So we thus have "broadsword" terms that have these meanings:

It must be noted that the term broadsword was never used historically to describe the one-handed arming sword.[citation needed] The arming sword was wrongly labelled a broadsword by antiquarians as the medieval swords were similar in blade width to the military swords of the day (that were also sometimes labeled as broadswords) and broader than the dueling swords and ceremonial dress swords.[citation needed]

Long knife[edit]

Knives such as the seax and other blades of similar length - between 1 and 2 feet ( ˜ 30 cm and 60 cm) - are sometimes construed as “swords”. This is especially the case for weapons from antiquity that lack access to the technology for the high quality steel that is necessary for reliable swords of the length of a spatha or longer.

Over-sized two-handers that were not practical weapons were popular as parade swords.

Edgeless and Thrusting swords[edit]

The edgeless swords category comprises weapons which are related to or labeled as “swords” but do not emphasis "hacking or slashing techniques" or have any "cutting edges" whatsoever. The majority of these elongated weapons were designed for agility, precision and rapid thrusting blows to exploit gaps in the enemy's shield wall and armor, or pierce iron or steel armour.


The Spartiatēs were always armed with a xiphos as a secondary weapon. Among most Greek warriors, this weapon had an iron blade of about 60 centimetres, however, the Spartan version was typically only 30-45 centimetres. The Spartan's shorter weapon proved deadly in the crush caused by colliding phalanxes formations – it was capable of being thrust through gaps in the enemy's shield wall and armor, where there was no room for longer weapons. The groin and throat were among the favorite targets. In one account, an Athenian asked a Spartan why his sword was so short and after a short pause he replied, "It's long enough to reach your heart."


The rapier (French épée rapière, Spanish espada ropera). Note that there is no historical Italian equivalent to the English word rapier.[5]

The term rapier appeared in the English lexicon via the French épée rapière which either compared the weapon to a rasp or file; or rapier may be a corruption of "rasping sword"[34] which referred to the rasping[35] sound the blade makes when it comes into contact with another blade.

Confusingly, the German rappier[36][37] is not the same weapon as the rapier but rather a long sword.[38]

Panzerstecher and koncerz[edit]

The Panzerstecher is a German and East European weapon with a long edgeless weapon of square or triangular cross-section for penetrating armour.[39][40][41] Early models were either two-handers or “hand-and-half” hilted,[42] while later 16th and 17th century models (also known as koncerz) were one-handed and used by cavalry.[43]

Tuck and Verdun[edit]

The tuck (French estoc, Italian stocco)[citation needed] is an edgeless blade of square or triangular cross-section used for thrusting.[citation needed] In French, estoc also means thrust or point; and estoc et taille means cut and thrust.[citation needed]

The tuck may also get its name from the verb to tuck which means to shorten.[citation needed]


The small sword or smallsword (also court sword, fr: épée de cour or dress sword)[citation needed] is a light one-handed sword designed for thrusting[citation needed] which evolved out of the longer and heavier rapier of the late Renaissance.[citation needed] The height of the small sword's popularity was between the mid-17th and late 18th century.[citation needed] It is thought to have appeared in France and spread quickly across the rest of Europe.[citation needed] The small sword was the immediate predecessor of the French dueling sword[citation needed] (from which the épée developed)[citation needed] and its method of use—as typified in the works of such authors as Sieur de Liancour, Domenico Angelo, Monsieur J. Olivier, and Monsieur L'Abbat—developed into the techniques of the French classical school of fencing.[citation needed] Small swords were also used as status symbols and fashion accessories; for most of the 18th century anyone, civilian or military, with pretensions to gentlemanly status would have worn a small sword on a daily basis.[citation needed]

Single-edge and Curved swords[edit]

These are single-edged, usually thick or curved bladed swords, typically designed for hacking or slashing purposes.


Unlike the xiphos, which is a thrusting weapon, the kopis was a hacking weapon in the form of a thick, curved single edged iron sword. In Athenian art, Spartan hoplites were often depicted using a kopis instead of the xiphos, as the kopis was seen as a quintessential "bad guys" weapon in Greek eyes.[44]


Main article: katana

Historically katana (?) were one of the traditionally made Japanese swords (日本刀 nihontō?)[45][46] that were used by the samurai of feudal Japan.[47] Modern versions of the katana are sometimes made using non-traditional materials and methods. The katana is characterized by its distinctive appearance: a curved, slender, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip to accommodate two hands.


The hanger (Obs. whinyard, whinger, cuttoe), wood-knife or hunting sword is a long knife or short sword that hangs from the belt and was popular as both a hunting tool and weapon of war.[48][49]

Falchion and cutlass[edit]

The falchion (French braquemart,[50] Spanish bracamarte) proper is a wide straight-bladed but curved edged hanger or long knife.[51] The term falchion may also refer to the early cutlass.

The cutlass or curtal-axe also known as a falchion (French badelaire, braquemart,[52] coutelas,[53] malchus Italian coltellaccio, storta, German messer,[54] dussack, malchus) is a broad-bladed curved hanger or long knife. In later usage, the cutlass referred to the short naval boarding sabre.[citation needed]


The sabre (US saber) or shable (French sabre, Spanish sable, Italian sciabola, German sabel or säbel, Russian sablya, Hungarian szablya, Polish szabla) is a single-edged curved bladed cavalry sword.[55]


The scimitar (French cimeterre, Italian scimitarra) is a type of saber that came to refer in general to any sabre used by the Turks or Ottomans (kilij), Persians (shamshir) and more specifically the Stradioti[56] (Albanian and Greek mercenaries who fought in the French-Italian Wars and were employed throughout Western Europe[57]).[58] The scimitar proper was the Stradioti saber,[59][60] and the term was introduced into France by Philippe de Commines (1447 – 18 October 1511) as cimeterre,[61] Italy (especially the Venetian Republic who hired the stradioti as mercenaries) as scimitarra, and England as cimeter or scimitar via the French and Italian terms.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pappenheimer Sword -
  2. ^ Pappenheimer | Define Pappenheimer at
  3. ^ Broadswords
  4. ^ SOCIETY :: WEAPONS :: THRUSTING AND CUTTING WEAPONS [1] image - Visual Dictionary Online
  5. ^ a b c The rapier revisited
  6. ^ a b attested in a New Gallery exhibition catalogue, London 1890.
  7. ^ a b see e.g. A general guide to the Wallace Collection, 1933, p. 149.
  8. ^ in Death of the Laird's Jock (1831).
  9. ^ Robert Nares, A glossary; or, Collection of words ... which have been thought to require illustration, in the works of English authors (1822).
  10. ^ Tony Willis, "A Pair of Scottish Swords", Page One, Page Two, Page Three, Page Four.
  11. ^ Oakeshott, Ewart. The Sword in the Age of Chivalry. Boydell Press 1994. Page 42-46.
  12. ^ Oakeshott, Ewart. Records of the Medieval Sword. Boydell Press 1991. Page 89 and 95.
  13. ^ Du Fresne Du Cange, C.; Henschel, G.A.L.; Carpentier, P.; Adelung, J.C.; Favre, L.; Freher, M.; Scaliger, J.J.; Welser, M. (1887). Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis: Indices (pp. v-ccxvi) & "Extraits des observations sur l'Histoire de Saint Louis". L. Favre. 
  14. ^ "Search Chambers - Free English Dictionary". Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  15. ^ "Claymore". Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  16. ^ Oeuvres - François Rabelais (écrivain), César de Missy, Jacob Le Duchat, Louis-Fabricius Dubourg, Bernard Picart, Pieter Tanjé, Balthasar Bernaerts, Jacob Folkema - Google Boo...
  17. ^ Dictionnaire historique de l'ancien langage françois - Sainte-Palaye (Jean-Baptiste de La Curne, M. de La Curne de) - Google Books
  18. ^ a b A Perfect Length II: The Longsword – Encased in Steel
  19. ^ Notes and queries - Oxford Journals (Firm) - Google Books
  20. ^ Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue françoise - Gilles Ménage, Auguste François Jault, Pierre Borel, Pierre de Caseneuve, H. P. Simon de Val-Hébert, Pierre Besnier, Claude ...
  21. ^ a b Dictionnaire étymologique, critique, historique, anecdotique et littéraire ... - François-Joseph-Michel Noël - Google Books
  22. ^ Fitzwilliam Museum Collections Explorer - Object HEN.M.213-1933 (Id:18930)
  23. ^ Patrick Bárta "Bastard" Sword -
  24. ^ Sword Forms
  25. ^ The Association for Renaissance Martial Arts :: View topic - Sword types in prize playing
  26. ^ Joseph Strutt The sports and pastimes of the people of England from the earliest period: including the rural and domestic recreations, May games, mummeries, pageants, processions and pompous spectacles, 1801, p. 211.
  27. ^ London Masters of Defense
  28. ^ The London Masters of Defense
  29. ^ Oakeshott (1980).
  30. ^ Paradoxes of Defence, by George Silver (1599)
  31. ^ Pennant, T. (1776). A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides, 1772 (v. 2). B. White. 
  32. ^ "Forms of European Edged Weaponry --". Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  33. ^ Boyer's French Dictionary: Comprising All the Additions and Improvements of ... - Abel Boyer, William Bentley Fowle - Google Books
  34. ^ Rapier | Define Rapier at
  35. ^ Le Monde De D Artagnan
  36. ^
  37. ^ JM9
  38. ^ swetnam1
  39. ^ dictionary :: Panzerstecher [Blankwaffe] :: German-English translation
  40. ^ English Tuck (Estoc) -
  41. ^ What's a Panzerstecher?
  42. ^ Philadelphia Museum of Art - Collections Object : Tuck (Panzerstecher)
  43. ^ Hermann Historica - Internationales Auktionshaus für Antiken, Alte Waffen, Orden und Ehrenzeichen, Historische Sammlungsstücke
  44. ^ Spartan Weaponry
  45. ^ Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani (2008). The Development of Controversies: From the Early Modern Period to Online Discussion Forums. Peter Lang. p. 150. ISBN 978-3-03911-711-6. 
  46. ^ Evans Lansing Smith; Nathan Robert Brown (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Mythology. Alpha Books. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-59257-764-4. 
  47. ^ Kokan Nagayama, trans. Kenji Mishina (1997). The Connoisseur's Book of Japanese Swords. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International Ltd. ISBN 4-7700-2071-6. 
  48. ^ Hunting Weapons: From the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century - Howard L. Blackmore - Google Books
  49. ^ European Hanger -
  50. ^ Glossaire archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance
  51. ^ Glossaire archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance
  52. ^ Les Guerriers d'Avalon
  53. ^ Glossaire archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance
  54. ^ Historical Messer Drawings
  55. ^ Ethnographic Arms & Armour - Article: Notes on development of modern sabers - Role of Eastern Europe & the Hussars
  56. ^ Stradioti: Balkan Mercenaries In Fifteenth And Sixteenth Century Italy
  57. ^ estradiot : définition de estradiot, citations, exemples et usage pour estradiot dans le dictionnaire de français Littré adapté du grand dictionnaire de la langue française d'...
  58. ^ Glossaire archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance
  59. ^ Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet - Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet - Google Books
  60. ^ Le costume historique: Cinq cents planches, trois cents en couleurs, or et ... - Auguste Racinet - Google Books
  61. ^ Des princes français, rois de Sicile, rois de Naples - Michel Levasseur - Google Books