Battle of Clavijo

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Battle of Clavijo
Part of the Reconquista
Battle of Clavijo by Giaquinto.jpg
Battle of Clavijo by Corrado Giaquinto
Date 23 May, 844
Location Clavijo, Spain
Result Victory for the Kingdom of Asturias
Emblema del Reino de Asturias.svg Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Flag.svg Emirate of Cordoba
Commanders and leaders
Emblema del Reino de Asturias.svg Ramiro I of Asturias Umayyad Flag.svg Unknown
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The Battle of Clavijo was a fictional battle that never took place, but which was believed for centuries and became a popular theme of Spanish traditions regarding the Christian expulsion of the Muslims.[1] Stories invented centuries later claimed it was fought near Clavijo between the Spanish Christians led by Ramiro I of Asturias, and the Muslims led by the Emir of Córdoba. In the legend, Saint James Matamoros, known to Spaniards as Santiago Matamoros (the Moor-slayer), suddenly appeared and helped a vastly outnumbered Christian army to gain its victory. Aspects of the historical Battle of Monte Laturce (859) were incorporated into this legend, as Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz demonstrated in 1948.[2] The date originally assigned to the battle, 834, was changed in modern times to suit the inherent contradictions of the account.

The legend as it survives was first written down about 300 years after the supposed battle on a spurious charter. A forged grant to the Church of Santiago de Compostela by which Ramiro reportedly surrendered a part of the annual tribute owed him by all the Christians of Spain also dates from the mid-twelfth century. The history of the cult of Saint James is rich in such frauds,[3] but has provided one of the strongest ideological icons in the Spanish national identity.


Saint James' appearance at Clavijo has been a major theme in art. Among those artists who portrayed him there are Aniello Falcone, Paolo da San Leocadio, Evaristo Muñoz, Mateo Pérez de Alesio, Martin Schongauer, Corrado Giaquinto, and Antonio González Ruiz.


  1. ^ Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-312-22464-8. 
  2. ^ "La auténtica batalla de Clavijo", Cuadernos de Historia de España, 9:94–139, reprinted in Orígenes de la nación española, III (Oviedo: 1975), 281–311. Cited in Fletcher, 67.
  3. ^ Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-312-22464-8. 

Coordinates: 42°21′N 2°25′E / 42.350°N 2.417°E / 42.350; 2.417