Battle of Hira

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Battle of Hira
Part of Islamic conquest of Persia and
Campaigns of Khalid ibn al-Walid
Mohammad adil rais-Khalid's conquest of Iraq.png
Date May 633 A.D
Location Al-Hirah, Iraq
Result Rashidun Caliphate victory.[1]
Belligerents
Rashidun Caliphate Sasanian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Khalid ibn al-Walid Iyas ibn Qabisah al-Ta'i,[2]
Abd al-Masih
Strength
~10,000-15,000[3][4] Unknown
Casualties and losses
Few Few

The Battle of Hira was fought between the Sasanians and the Rashidun Caliphate in 633. It was one of the early battles of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Context[edit]

The city of Al-Hirah, widely known for its size and wealth, was a Sassanian dukedom[5] as it was the capital of the Persian province of Iraq. Many of its Lakhmid Christian Arab inhabitants patrolled the desert on behalf of the Sassanians.[1] According to the Roman historian, Procopius, the Lakhmids were "experienced at war, (and) completely loyal to the Persians (before 608 a.d., when the sassanids turned against them).[6] During the reign of the Caliphate, Abu Bakr, sent Khalid ibn al-Walid a letter which noted that "The conquest of Al-Hirah and Kufa is entrusted to thee." [7]

In May 633 AD, the Muslim Arabs, under Khalid ibn al-Walid, attacked the fortressed city, whose Lakhmid defenders utilized projectiles against the Muslims. The fight was brief and the citizens of the city quickly surrendered and brought gifts to Khalid ibn al-Walid.[8] In the aftermath, five castles in the city, which were beautifully adorned, fell into the hands of the Muslims and the inhabitants of the city agreed to surrender and pay tribute. The inhabitants also agreed to act as spies against the Sassanians, just as the inhabitants of Ullais had.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim Elites in Medieval Iranian Society By Jamsheed Kairshasp Choksy, pg. 14
  2. ^ Muhammad's People: An Anthology of Muslim Civilization By Eric Schroeder,pg.160
  3. ^ After the battle of Ullais (15,000 Muslim army) in which around 2000 muslims died the army strength must be ~10,000-15,000 along with reinforcement or possible new recruits from Misna ibn Haris's tribe of Bani Bakr in Iraq.
  4. ^ Sword of Allah: chapter no: 23 by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 978-0-7101-0104-4
  5. ^ The Battles That Changed History By Fletcher Pratt, pg. 80
  6. ^ The History of Iran By Elton L. Daniel, pg. 65
  7. ^ Lives of Mahomet and His Successors By Washington Irving, pg. 177
  8. ^ The Caliphate, Its Rise, Decline, and Fall. From Original Sources By William Muir, pg. 56
  9. ^ Iraq After the Muslim Conquest By Michael G. Morony, pg. 233