Biała Podlaska

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the village of the same name, see Biała Podlaska, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
Biała Podlaska
Buildings near the main square
Buildings near the main square
Flag of Biała Podlaska
Flag
Coat of arms of Biała Podlaska
Coat of arms
Biała Podlaska is located in Poland
Biała Podlaska
Biała Podlaska
Coordinates: 52°2′N 23°7′E / 52.033°N 23.117°E / 52.033; 23.117
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Lublin
County city county
Established 1481
Town rights 1670
Government
 • Mayor Dariusz Stefaniuk
Area
 • Total 49.40 km2 (19.07 sq mi)
Highest elevation 150 m (490 ft)
Lowest elevation 137 m (449 ft)
Population (01.05.2012)
 • Total 59,280 Increase
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 21-500 to 21-502, 21-506, 21-527
Area code(s) +48 083
Car plates LB
Website http://www.bialapodlaska.pl

Biała Podlaska [ˈbʲawa pɔdˈlaska] ( ) (Latin: Alba Ducalis), is a city in eastern Poland with 58,047 inhabitants (2005). It is situated in the Lublin Voivodeship (since 1999), having previously been the capital of Biała Podlaska Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Biała Podlaska County. The city lies on the Krzna river.

History[edit]

The first historical document mentioning Biała Podlaska dates to 1481. In the beginning Biała Podlaska belonged to the Illnicz family. The founder of the city may have been Piotr Janowicz nicknamed "Biały" (Polish for "white"), who was the hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Biała Podlaska was at the time a part of Brześć voivodeship in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (then in union with Poland).[1]

In 1569 Biała Podlaska changed hands; the new owners were the Radziwiłł family. Under their rule, Biała Podlaska had been growing for two and half centuries. In 1622 Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł has built the fortress and the castle. In 1628 Krzysztof Ciborowicz Wilski established Bialska Academy as a regional center of education (since 1633 it was a branch of the Jagiellonian University, then called Kraków Academy). During this time many churches were erected, as was one hospital. The prosperity period had finished with Swedish invasion in 1655. Then Biała Podlaska was attacked by Cossacks and Rakoczy armies. The town was significantly destroyed; however, thanks to Michał Radziwiłł and his wife Katarzyna Sobieska, it was rebuilt. In 1670 Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł gives Biała Podlaska town rights and the coat of arms, which depicts archangel Michael standing on a dragon.[1]

In 1720 Anna Radziwiłł begins building the tower and the gate - both buildings exist to this day and are the most interesting remains of the castle and palace. In the 18th century the city and the fortress were many times destroyed (mostly as a result of wars) and rebuilt. The last heir, Dominik Radziwiłł, has died 11 November 1813 in France, as a colonel of the Polish army. The palace, which fell into ruin, has been pulled down in 1883.[1]

Castle tower and the regional museum at the Radziwiłł park in Biała Podlaska

At the end of 19th century Biała Podlaska was a large garrison town of the Imperial Russian Army. Near cross-section of Brzeska Str. and Aleje Tysiclecia Ave. is located a cemetery of soldiers killed during World War I.

During the Second Polish Republic in the interwar period, Biała Podlaska was growing fast. The town was the seat of the Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów (PWS), which manufactured Polish airplanes. There was also a garrison of the 34th infantry regiment of the Polish Armed Forces. The regiment, formed in 1919, fought successfully in the Polish–Soviet War, and also fought against Germans and Soviets in September campaign of 1939. The last commander of the regiment, lieutenant colonel Wacław Budrewicz, has been taken prisoner of war by Soviets and murdered by them in 1940 Katyn massacre.

World War II halted the town's development because of the Nazi and Soviet repressions. The Germans captured Biała Podlaska on 13 September 1939, but withdrew on 26 September to allow the Soviets to station in the town; however, on 10 October 1939, in accordance with the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviets departed and the town was reoccupied by the Germans. By that time, the Soviets have already managed to completely plunder the Poland's airplane factory, so that nothing but empty buildings remained. After Germany attacked their Soviet ally in Operation Barbarossa, war prisoner camp had been set up around Biała Podlaska, where Soviet POWs were killed.[citation needed]

In the postwar period and until today, Biała Podlaska has been developing into a more modern city but still retains many of the original features in the central Polish old town of the city. From 1975 to 1999 Biała Podlaska was a capital of the voivodeship, later it again became a city county, like before 1975.

History of the Jewish community[edit]

The first mention of Jewish settlement in Biała Podlaska dates from 1621 when 30 Jewish families were granted rights of residence there. By 1841 there were 2,200 Jews out of a total population of 3,588 in the town. In 1897 the number was 6,549 out of 13,090 inhabitants. In the 19th century the chasidic movement established strong roots in Biała Podlaska. A descendant of the Yid Hakodosh of Przysucha formed the Biala chasidic court existing to this day with communities in London, America and various cities in Israel. The chasidim of Kotsk also had a large presence in Biała Podlaska, some of which later became Gerrer chasidim. In the already sovereign Poland by 1931, the Jews constituted 64.7% of the total population, or 6,923 out of 10,697 citizens. Four Yiddish newspapers were published locally between the two world wars.

The Germans captured Biała Podlaska on 13 September 1939 during the invasion of Poland, but withdrew on 26 September in accordance with the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact to allow for the Red Army to take over. On 10 October 1939 the Soviets handed the town back to the Germans when the line of demarkation was finally set up. Around 600 Jews escaped the town during the Soviet departure. The Germans formed a Judenrat in November 1939, which set up a public kitchen and a Jewish infirmary.[2] On 1 December 1939 a decree was issued requiring all Jews to wear a Star of David. Jews were ordered to move into an open-type ghetto along the Grabanów, Janowa, Prosta and Przechodnia streets, and a Jewish Ghetto Police was established. At the end of 1939, some 2,000 to 3,000 more Jews came during the deportations from Suwałki and Serock. The overcrowding resulted in a typhus epidemic in Biała Podlaska in early 1940, causing many deaths.[2]

Several hundred more Jews were brought in from as far as Kraków and Mława during "resettlement" actions conducted in 1940 and 1941. The men were sent to new labour camps in the Wola district at an airfield, the train station, and elsewhere. Hundreds were paving roads, draining ditches, constructing sewage lines and building barracks. Many women worked in the Nazi farms. In March 1942 the ghetto had 8,400 inmates.[2]

The Holocaust[edit]

Biała Podlaska Ghetto liquidation action conducted in 1942

After the launch of Operation Reinhard – the code name for a most deadly phase of the Holocaust in occupied Poland – on 6 June 1942 the Jews were told to prepare for "resettlement". Only workers from the forced labour camps possessing labour permits would be exempt from the deportation. On 10 June some 3,000 Jews including women with children were assembled in the synagogue courtyard. Many Jews fled to the forests. The assembled Jews were led by the German police to the train station. The next day the prisoners were packed into the awaiting Holocaust trains and sent to Sobibór extermination camp. All were gassed.[2]

In September 1942, some 3,000 Jews from the neighbouring towns of Janów and Konstantynów were brough in to Biała Podlaska Ghetto. The overcrowding became desperate. The Jews sensed that the ghetto was slated for liquidation. Many escaped to the forests, others prepared hiding places in the basements.[2] On 6 October 1942, the Germans deported about 1,200 Jews from the labour camps to Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto. The subsequent "actions" conducted by the Nazi German Reserve Police Battalion 101 augmented by the Ukrainian Trawnikis lasted throughout October and November 1942. In total, some 10,800 Jews from around Biała Podlaska and its county were sent to their deaths at Treblinka or massacred on the spot during roundups.[3]

The remaining Jews of Biała Podlaska were sent to a transit point at the Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto for deportations to death camps.[3] In July 1943 the transit ghetto in Międzyrzec was liquidated. All its inmates were deported to Majdanek and Treblinka, where they were gassed.[3] The Nazis left a small group of 300 Jewish slave labourers in Biała Podlaska to clean-up the decaying ghetto area. In May 1944, the surviving workers were transported to their deaths at KL Majdanek. Biała Podlaska was captured by the Red Army on 26 July 1944. Only 300 Jews are known to have survived the Holocaust. Most of them left Poland after the war.[2]

Remembrance[edit]

The parts of the city which was originally the Jewish "quarter" are still existing.[4] The Jewish community is commemorated by a memorial erected at the site of the Jewish cemetery destroyed by the Nazis.[5] Another memorial was recently erected by Jewish survivors from the town now living in the USA. Two former private prayer houses of the Jewish community are still in existence.[6] The cemetery otherwise stands as an empty reminder of the hole that was ripped out of Biała Podlaska by the Holocaust. Apart from Israel, Melbourne in Australia has the largest number of Jewish Biała Podlaska survivors - all now very aged.

Historic buildings[edit]

  • St. Anne's Church - 1572
  • St. Anthony's Church - 1672-1684
  • Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - 1759
  • Building Academy of Biała - 1628, at the present time: I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Józefa Ignacego Kraszewskiego w Białej Podlaskiej.
  • Postpalace complex
  • Old town of the city

Culture and Tourism[edit]

Galleries[edit]

  • Galeria Podlaska[7]
  • Galeria Ulica Krzywa (en. "Crooked Street" Gallery)[8]
  • Galeria Podlaska - Bialskie Centrum Kultury (Biała Podlaska Cultural Center)
  • Galeria Autorska Jakusza Maksymiuka (Janusz Maksymiuk's Gallery)

Museums[edit]

  • Muzeum Południowego Podlasia (Museum of Southern Podlasie, founded in 1924)
  • Oddział Martyrologiczno-Historyczny (Martyrology and Historic Division, since 1973, in the World War II Gestapo jail at Łomaska 21 Street).[9]

Cinemas[edit]

  • Novekino Merkury - 1 hall, 282 seats, digital cinema 3D
  • Cinema 3D - multiplex situated in Rywal Shopping Center; 4 halls; digital cinema 3D, 4K (Ultra HD)

Theatres[edit]

Plays are staged in the auditorium of the Pope John II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska and in amphitheater in park Radziwill.

Cultural Centers[edit]

  • Bialskie Centrum Kultury
  • Scena
  • Piast
  • Eureka

Festivals[edit]

  • Days of Biała Podlaska
  • Podlasie Jazz Festival[10]
  • Biała Blues Festival[11]
  • Art Of Fun Festival
  • Podlaska Jesień Teatralna (en. Podlasie Theatrical Autumn) [12]

Communication[edit]

The city is a major transportation hub: National Road 2 which is also the international road E30, two voivodship (DW811, DW812) roads and one railway line.

Public Transport[edit]

Biała Podlaska has its own bus lines. The organizer of the communication is the Management of Urban Transport (polish: ZKM - Zarząd Komunikacji Miejskiej). Buses operate 8 lines marked with letters from "A" to "H" (frequency approx. 30 min). On the basis of an agreement between the neighboring villages, buses carry courses outside the administrative boundaries of the city.

Roads[edit]

Railways[edit]

  • railway line number 2

Airport[edit]

The town has an airport, once used for military purposes. The airport has one of the longest runways in Poland.


Government[edit]

Current President of Biała Podlaska (2014) is Andrzej Antoni Czapski (b. 1954).[13] In September 2001, the list of newly elected Members of Parliament (Sejm) from the constituency of Biała Podlaska/Chełm/Zamość included Przemysław Andrejuk (LPR), Tadeusz Badach (SLD-UP), Arkadiusz Bratkowski (PSL), Jan Byra (SLD-UP), Zbigniew Janowski (SLD-UP), Marian Kwiatkowski (Samoobrona), Henryk Lewczuk (LPR), Jerzy Michalski (Samoobrona), Lech Nikolski (SLD-UP), Szczepan Skomra (SLD-UP), Ryszard Stanibuła (PSL), Franciszek Stefaniuk (PSL), Wojciech Wierzejski (LPR), Stanisław Żmijan (PO).[14]

Education[edit]

Primary Schools[edit]

  • Primary School No. 1 name Fr. Stanisław Brzóska
  • Primary School No. 2 name Heroic Airmen of Podlasie
  • Primary School No. 3 name Maria Konopnicka
  • Primary School No. 4 name Kornel Makuszyński
  • Primary School No. 5 name Jan Kochanowski
  • Primary School No. 6 name Adam Mickiewicz
  • Primary School No. 7 name Henryk Sienkiewicz
  • Primary School No. 9 name Queen Jadwiga
  • Special Primary School

Junior High Schools[edit]

  • Public Junior High School No. 1 name
  • Public Junior High School No. 2 name Mikołaj Kopernik
  • Public Junior High School No. 3 name Emilia Plater
  • Public Junior High School No. 4 name Józef Piłsudski
  • Public Junior High School No. 5 name Adam Mickiewicz
  • Public Junior High School No. 6 name John Paul II
  • Catholic Junior High School name Cyprian Norwid

High Schools[edit]

  • High School No. 1 name Józef Ignacy Kraszewski
  • High School No. 2 name Emilia Plater
  • High School No. 3 name Adam Mickiewicz
  • High School No. 4 name Stanisław Staszic
  • Catholic High School name Cyprian Norwid

State Universities[edit]

Media[edit]

Local TV Stations[edit]

  • Biała Podlaska TV - channel available on cable TV Vectra
  • TVP Lublin - channel available in MUX-3 DVB-T
  • Interwizja - internet TV
  • biala.tv
  • pulsmiasta.pl

Local Radio Stations[edit]

  • Polskie Radio Lublin 93.1 FM
  • Katolickie Radio Podlasie 101.7 FM
  • Radio Biper (Internet radio)[16]

Other Radio Stations[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

  • Słowo Podlasia[17]
  • Tygodnik Podlaski
  • Biała Się Dzieje na papierze
  • Kurier Bialski
  • Dziennik Wschodni
  • Życie Bialskie

News websites[edit]

  • biala24.pl
  • bialanonstop.pl
  • bialasiedzieje.pl
  • slowopodlasia.pl
  • tygodnikpodlaski.pl
  • Bialczanin.eu
  • Radiobiper.info [16]
  • Interwizja.edu.pl

Films made in Biała Podlaska[edit]

  • Smoleńsk - film, which tells the story of the Smolensk plane crash on April 10, 2010. Scenes were recorded at airport in Biała Podlaska.
  • To nie koniec świata! (Eng. It's not the end of the world!) - TV series broadcast on Polsat

Sports and Recreation[edit]

Sections and clubs[edit]

  • AZS-AWF Biała Podlaska – handball, basketball, gymnastics, swimming, volleyball, weightlifting
  • Podlasie Biała Podlaska – men's soccer
  • AZS PSW Biała Podlaska – women's soccer, men's handball
  • Bialskopodlaski Klub Jeździecki – horsemanship
  • UKS TOP-54 – men's soccer, handball, korfball, cheerleaders, billiards
  • UKS Piątka plus – handball, billiard
  • UKS Jagiellończyk – soccer, athletics, gymnastics, women's volleyball
  • UKS Orlik-2 – women's basketball, men's soccer
  • UKS Serbinów (men's volleyball)
  • SKS Szóstka (women's volleyball)
  • UKS Olimpia – basketball, taekwon-do, soccer
  • UKS Kraszak – men's handball, basketball
  • UKS TATAMI – judo
  • Międzyszkolny Klub Sportowy ŻAK
  • Klub Żeglarski Biała Podlaska
  • Bialski Klub Sportowy GEM – tennis
  • Klub Sportowy Zakład Karny – volleyball
  • Bialski Klub Karate Kyokushin
  • Klub Sportowy Wushu
  • WOPR Biała Podlaska
  • Automobilklub bialskopodlaski
  • Bialski Klub Rowerowy – cycling
  • Bialskie Stowarzyszenie Koszykówki "KADET" - basketball

Sport facilities[edit]

  • 4 stadiums
  • 3 swimming pools
  • tennis court

Recreation[edit]

  • parks (e.g. Radziwiłł Park)
  • Plac Wolności (Freedom Square)

International relations[edit]

Twin towns - Sister cities[edit]

Biała Podlaska is twinned with:

Notable individuals[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Biała Podlaska, Historia miasta - Serwis Urzędu Miasta Biała Podlaska Official website.
  2. ^ a b c d e f S.J., C.W., & Carmelo Lisciotto, Biala Podlaska HEART 2007. Sources listed: Yitzhak Arad and Sir Martin Gilbert.
  3. ^ a b c Struan Robertson, Hamburg Police Battalions during the Second World War, "Aktion Reinhard". (Internet Archive).
  4. ^ "Grabanov Street seen from Prosta St. (winter 1944/5).". 2007-11-29. Archived from the original on 2007-11-29. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  5. ^ "Las Hały - miejsce zagłady Żydów (The Hały Forest, place of extermination of Jews)" (Internet Archive). Biala Podlaska.com. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Jewish Travel in Poland - Selected Sites of Jewish Interest in Poland". Jewishtravel.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  7. ^ "Galeria Podlaska - News". Galeriapodlaska.mokbp.nazwa.pl. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  8. ^ "Galeria Ulica Krzywa - Biała Podlaska - Główna". Ulicakrzywa.org.pl. 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  9. ^ "Historia Muzeum". Muzeum Południowego Podlasia w Białej Podlaskiej, Warszawska 12 Street, Biała Podlaska. 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Podlasie Jazz Festival". Podlasie Jazz Festival. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  11. ^ "Biała Blues Festival". Bsj.xpx.pl. 2009-02-10. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  12. ^ "Wiadomości - Biała Podlaska - Xix Podlaska Jesień Teatralna – Inauguracja Plenerowa". Podlasie24.pl. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  13. ^ BIP (2014). "Urząd Miasta Biała Podlaska". Panel administracyjny. Biuletyn Informacji Publicznej. Retrieved 23 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Diennik Polski (27 Sep 2001), Lista nowo wybranych posłów, 27 września 2001. From the list of newly elected MPs for 2001.
  15. ^ "Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Białej Podlaskiej". Awf-bp.edu.pl. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  16. ^ a b "IPI Radio BiPeR - Internetowy Portal Informacyjny Radia BiPeR - Biała Podlaska". Radiobiper.info. 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  17. ^ Łukasz Jakimiuk. "www.slowopodlasia.pl". www.slowopodlasia.pl. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  18. ^ Побратимские связи г. Бреста.


Coordinates: 52°02′N 23°08′E / 52.033°N 23.133°E / 52.033; 23.133