Biennale of Sydney
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The Biennale of Sydney is an international festival of contemporary art, held every two years in Sydney, Australia. It is the largest and best-attended contemporary visual arts event in the country. Alongside the Venice and São Paulo biennales and Documenta, it is one of the longest running exhibitions of its kind and was the first biennale to be established in the Asia-Pacific region.
In 1973 the Biennale of Sydney held its first exhibition of 37 artists in the exhibition hall of the then newly opened Sydney Opera House.
- 1973, The Biennale of Sydney, Coordinator: Anthony Wintherbotham
- 1976, Recent International Forms in Art, Artistic Director: Thomas G. McCullough
- 1979, European Dialogue, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow
- 1982, Vision in Disbelief, Artistic Director: William Wright
- 1984, Private Symbol: Social Metaphor, Artistic Director: Leon Paroissien
- 1986, Origins, Originality + Beyond, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow
- 1988, From the Southern Cross: A View of World Art c1940–1988, Artistic Director: Nick Waterlow
- 1990, The Readymade Boomerang: Certain Relations in 20th Century Art, Artistic Director: René Block
- 1992/3, The Boundary Rider, Artistic Director: Tony Bond
- 1996, Jurassic Technologies Revenant, Artistic Director: Lynne Cooke
- 1998, Every Day, Artistic Director: Jonathan Watkins
- 2000, International Selection Committee: Nick Waterlow (Chair), Fumio Nanjo, Louise Neri, Hetti Perkins, Sir Nicholas Serota, Robert Storr, Harald Szeemann.
- 2002, (The World May Be) Fantastic Richard Grayson, Artistic Director
- 2004, On Reason and Emotion, Curator: Isabel Carlos
- 2006, Zones of Contact, Artistic Director & Curator: Charles Merewether
- 2008, Revolutions - Forms That Turn, Artistic Director: Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev
- 2010, THE BEAUTY OF DISTANCE, Songs of Survival in a Precarious Age, Artistic Director: David Elliott
- 2012, all our relations, Artistic Directors: Catherine de Zegher and Gerald McMaster
- 2014, You Imagine What You Desire, Artistic Director: Juliana Engberg
In 2014 calls were made to boycott the 19th Biennale in response to the chief sponsor Transfield's involvement in the building and management of overseas detention centres condemned by the UN refugee agency.
28 Artists participating in the 19th Biennale of Sydney published an open letter, on the 19th of February 2014, to the Board of Directors, Biennale of Sydney about their concerns with the Biennale’s sponsorship arrangement with Transfield. In this letter the artists stated "We urge you to act in the interests of asylum seekers. As part of this we request the Biennale withdraw from the current sponsorship arrangements with Transfield and seek to develop new ones." The group of artists who originally signed this open letter were — Gabrielle de Vietri, Bianca Hester, Charlie Sofo, Nathan Gray, Deborah Kelly, Matt Hinkley, Benjamin Armstrong, Libia Castro, Ólafur Ólafsson, Sasha Huber, Sonia Leber, David Chesworth, Daniel McKewen, Angelica Mesiti, Ahmet Öğüt, Meriç Algün Ringborg, Joseph Griffiths, Sol Archer, Tamas Kaszas, Krisztina Erdei, Nathan Coley, Corin Sworn, Ross Manning, Martin Boyce, Callum Morton, Emily Roysdon, Søren Thilo Funder, Mikhail Karikis.
On 20th of February 2014, 6 additional Biennale artists signed on to the open letter to the Biennale of Sydney Board, these artists were - Sara van der Heide, Henna-Riikka Halonen, Ane Hjort Guttu, Hadley+Maxwell, Shannon Te Ao, Yael Bartana. By 26th February 2014, 41 Biennale artists in total had signed this open letter. 
On 26th of February 2014, five artists (Libia Castro, Ólafur Ólafsson, Charlie Sofo, Gabrielle de Vietri & Ahmet Öğüt) withdrew their participation in the Biennale of Sydney in protest. This protest was due to the Biennale's sponsor Transfield profiting from the mandatory detention of asylum seekers and the Biennale's refusal to cut sponsorship ties with Transfield as requested by the artists. 
On 5th of March 2014, four more artists (Agnieszka Polska, Sara van der Heide, Nicoline van Harskamp and Nathan Gray) withdrew their participation in the Biennale of Sydney.
13th Biennale of Sydney (2002)
The 2002 Biennale of Sydney titled (The World May Be) Fantastic investigated 'artists and practices using fictions, narratives, invented methodologies, hypotheses, subjective belief systems, modellings, fakes and experiments as a means to make works'. Writing in Art in America in October, 2002, Michael Duncan said of the exhibition that it "gave free rein to complex, often offbeat works predicated on alternate realities." Artists included: Mike Nelson, Chris Burden, Susan Hiller, Vito Acconci, Eleanor Antin, Henry Darger, Janet Cardiff and Rodney Graham. Richard Grayson was the Artistic Director.
14th Biennale of Sydney (2004)
The 2004 Biennale of Sydney was held from 4 June - 15 August and titled On Reason and Emotion. It featured the work of 51 artists from 32 countries. Much of the exhibition was sited within Sydney’s major art museums and galleries, however a number of new projects were created for specific sites at outdoor locations within the city, such as the Royal Botanic Gardens and the forecourt of the Sydney Opera House. Isabel Carlos was the Curator.
15th Biennale of Sydney (2006)
The 2006 Biennale of Sydney was held from 8 June - 27 August and titled Zones of Contact. It featured the work of 85 artists from 44 countries and was held across 16 diverse venues throughout Sydney including Pier 2/3, at Walsh Bay, the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Museum of Contemporary Art. Dr Charles Merewether was the Artistic Director and Curator.
A record of 316,811 visits were recorded over all venues. The festival included a wide range of works and mediums including installation, sculpture, performance, video, sound, photography and painting. 53 artists created 80 new works specifically for the exhibition in response to the concept 'Zones of Contact'. The festival also featured three two-day symposia, over 50 talks, education programs and an 'Art Walk' along the harbour foreshore between principal exhibition venues.
16th Biennale of Sydney (2008)
The 16th Biennale of Sydney, Revolutions – Forms That Turn, took place from 18 June – 7 September 2008 with leading international curator and writer Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev as Artistic Director. It achieved record visitation of 436,150 and featured 175 artists from 42 countries.
Cockatoo Island, a former prison and shipyard, was used as a major new venue and won the Biennale a Sydney Music, Arts and Culture (SMAC) Award. Other venues included; Art Gallery of NSW, Pier 2/3 at Walsh Bay, Museum of Contemporary Art, Artspace, Sydney Opera House and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The 16th Biennale of Sydney was awarded Australian Event of the Year & Best Cultural or Arts Event at the 2009 Australian Event Awards.
17th Biennale of Sydney (2010)
The 17th Biennale of Sydney, titled THE BEAUTY OF DISTANCE: Songs of Survival in a Precarious Age, was held from 12 May – 1 August 2010. Under the Artistic Direction of international curator David Elliott, 444 works by 167 artist and collaborators were selected from 36 countries, making it the largest exhibition staged in the organisations 37-year history.
Venues included Cockatoo Island, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Pier 2/3 at Walsh Bay, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney Opera House, Artspace and the Art Gallery of New South Wales. The 17th Biennale of Sydney achieved record attendance of more than 517,000 visits across all venues with 68 artists premiering new works made especially for the exhibition. The 17th Biennale of Sydney’s SuperDeluxe@Artspace programme which combined gallery, performance space and bar was awarded Best Arts Event by popular vote at the 2010 Sydney Music, Arts and Culture (SMAC) Awards as well as being a finalist in the Best Major Festival category. The 17th Biennale of Sydney was also a finalist at the 2010 Australian Event Awards in the Best Cultural or Arts Event category.
18th Biennale of Sydney (2012)
The 18th Biennale of Sydney: all our relations, was held from 27 June – 16 September 2012 across five venues: Cockatoo Island, Pier 2/3, the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Museum of Contemporary Art Australia and Carriageworks. Under the artistic direction of Gerald McMaster and Catherine de Zegher, 225 works by 101 artists were selected from Australia, New Zealand, the Asia-Pacific, the Americas, Europe, South Africa and the Middle East. Nearly half the artists (49) created works especially for the exhibition, including many substantial collaborative installations.
The exhibition drew record crowds, with more than 665,000 visits recorded over five venues, an increase of 29 per cent on the 2010 attendance figures. The Biennale Bar @ Pier 2/3, presented by Asahi Super Dry, was a popular after dark event taking place over five Friday nights in August. Designed by Asahi, the bar space welcomed visitors to the atmospheric Pier 2/3 and provided a perfect backdrop for a social Friday night event; drawing a young, hip crowd to the Walsh Bay precinct. In the closing week of the exhibition, Carriageworks and the Biennale of Sydney presented the Australian premieres of En Atendant and Cesena, two performances by Belgian choreographer Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker’s dance ensemble Rosas.
19th Biennale of Sydney (2014)
The 19th Biennale of Sydney: You Imagine What You Desire will be presented from 21 March – 9 June 2014, under the artistic direction of Juliana Engberg.
You Imagine What You Desire is an evocation celebrating the artistic imagination as a spirited describing and exploration of the world through metaphor and poesis. It makes enquiries into contemporary aesthetic experience, and relates this to historical precedents and future opportunities to imagine possible worlds. It seeks to understand the need artists have today to create immersive and expanded environments, and locates this activity as part of an art historical trajectory, and as a pursuit into the issues of human consciousness, and their psychological, cognitive and corporeal imperatives.
It reminds us that powerful art is not divorced from the cultural conditions, political, social and climatic environments in which it is generated. That indeed it often exists to provide a meta-commentary on these aspects of society – and even, sometimes, act as an antidote and proposition. As a future vision.
You Imagine What You Desire seeks splendour and rapture in works that remain true to a greater, even sublime visuality. Today these things co-exist and overlap, and the tactics of theatricality cannot be separated from overtly social-situationist inspired works, just as they are central to works engaging with humanity at a grand scale. Extra energies are sought in works that unleash physical and psychic intensity. A happy anarchy is produced with works that activate the power of imagination through laughter and activity.
Notes and references
- "Grasshopper Worlds", 2002 Biennale of Sydney catalogue essay by Richard Grayson. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- Australian Event Awards — 2009 Official Website
- Biennale of Sydney site
- Feature on 2006 Biennale of Sydney - Artkrush.com, June 2006
- The Biennale of Sydney on Flickr
- Biennale of Sydney YouTube Channel