Carol Gilligan

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Carol Gilligan
Carol and James Gilligan P1010970.jpg
Carol Gilligan and James Gilligan, 2011
Born (1936-11-28) November 28, 1936 (age 78)
Occupation Professor
Nationality United States
Subject Psychology, Ethics, Feminism
Notable works In a Different Voice

Carol Gilligan (/ˈɡɪlɪɡən/; born November 28, 1936) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics.

She is currently a Professor at New York University and a Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge. She is presently teaching as a visiting professor at New York University, Abu Dhabi. She is best known for her 1982 work, In a Different Voice. She is the founder of difference feminism.[citation needed]

Background and career[edit]

Carol Gilligan was raised in a Jewish family in New York City.[1] She was the only child of a lawyer, William Friedman, and nursery school teacher, Mabel Caminez. She attended Walden School, a progressive private school on Manhattan's Upper West Side, played piano and pursued a career in modern dance during her graduate studies. Gilligan received her B.A. summa cum laude in English literature from Swarthmore College, a master's degree in clinical psychology from Radcliffe College, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University.[2]

She began her teaching career at Harvard in 1967, receiving tenure with the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1988. Gilligan taught for two years at the University of Cambridge (from 1992–1994) as the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. In 1997, she became Patricia Albjerg Graham Chair in Gender Studies at Harvard.[2]

Gilligan left Harvard in 2002 to join New York University as a full professor with the School of Education and the School of Law.[3] She is also visiting professor at the University of Cambridge in the Centre for Gender Studies.[4]

Best known for her work, In a Different Voice, Gilligan studied women’s psychology and girls’ development and co-authored or edited a number of texts with her students.[5] She published her first novel, Kyra, in 2008.[6][7]

She is married to James Gilligan, M.D., who directed the Center for the Study of Violence at Harvard Medical School.[8]



  • In a Different Voice, Harvard University Press, (1982)
  • Mapping the Moral Domain: A Contribution of Women's Thinking to Psychological Theory and Education, Harvard University Press, (1989)
  • Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School, Harvard University Press, (1990)
  • Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development, Harvard University Press, (1992)
  • Between Voice and Silence: Women and Girls, Race and Relationships, Harvard University Press, (1997)
  • The Birth of Pleasure, Knopf, (2002)
  • Kyra, Random House, (2008)
  • The Deepening Darkness: Patriarchy, Resistance, & Democracy's Future, Cambridge University Press, (2009) (with co-author David A.J. Richards)
  • a dramatic adaptation of the novel The Scarlet Letter, co-written with her son Jonathan and produced by Prime Stage Theatre in November 2011
  • Joining the Resistance, Polity Press (2011)


  1. ^ "Carol Gilligan | Jewish Women's Archive". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  2. ^ a b "Carol Gilligan". 1936-11-28. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  3. ^ "NYU - Press Release". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  4. ^ "Gilligan to Be MHC Commencement Speaker :: News & Events :: Mount Holyoke College". 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  5. ^ "Gilligan to Be MHC Commencement Speaker :: News & Events :: Mount Holyoke College". 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  6. ^ "Gilligan Turns to Fictional Love Story in 'Kyra'". National Public Radio. 2008-01-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (1997-09-25). "Gilligan a pioneer in gender studies". Retrieved 2012-07-22. 
  9. ^ "1992- Carol Gilligan". 
  10. ^ The Heinz Awards, Carol Gilligan profile

External links[edit]