Cathy Berberian

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Cathy Berberian performing in Venice, 1967

Catherine Anahid Berberian (July 4, 1925 – March 6, 1983) was an American mezzo-soprano and composer. She interpreted contemporary avant-garde music composed, among others, by Luciano Berio, Bruno Maderna, John Cage, Henri Pousseur, Sylvano Bussotti, Darius Milhaud, Roman Haubenstock-Ramati, and Igor Stravinsky. She also interpreted works by Claudio Monteverdi, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Kurt Weill, Philipp Zu Eulenburg, arrangements of songs by The Beatles, and folk songs from several countries and cultures. As a composer, she wrote Stripsody (1966), in which she exploits her vocal technique using comic book sounds (onomatopoeia), and Morsicat(h)y (1969), a composition for the keyboard (with the right hand only) based on Morse code.

Biography[edit]

Cathy Berberian was born in Attleboro, Massachusetts to Armenian parents, Yervant and Louise Berberian. The elder of two children, she spent the first 12 years of her life in Attleboro, then the family moved to New York City in 1937 where she graduated from Manhattan's Julia Richman High School for Girls. From an early age, she showed an interest in Armenian folk music and dance as well as traditional opera. While still in high school, she was the director and soloist of the Armenian Folk Group in New York City. For a time, she was an undergraduate at New York University, but left to take evening classes in theatre and music at Columbia University, working during the day to support her studies. She went on to study music in Paris with Marya Freund in 1948, and in 1949 she went to Milan to study singing at the Milan Conservatory with Giorgina del Vigo. In 1950, she received a Fulbright scholarship to continue her studies there. Although she had appeared in several student productions, radio broadcasts and informal concerts during the early 1950s, she made her formal debut in 1957 at Incontri Musicali, a contemporary music festival in Naples. The following year her performance of John Cage's Aria with Fontana Mix in its world premiere, established her as a major exponent of contemporary vocal music.[1] Her American debut came in 1960 at the Tanglewood Music Festival where she premiered Circles by the Italian composer Luciano Berio.

From 1950 to 1964 Berberian was married to Luciano Berio, whom she met when they were students at the Milan Conservatory. They had one daughter, Cristina Berio, born in 1953.[2] Berberian became Berio's muse and collaborator both during and after their marriage. He wrote, for her, Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) (1958), Circles (1960), Visage (1961), Folk Songs (1964–73), Sequenza III (1965), and Recital I (for Cathy) (1972).

In 1967 Berberian took an artistic detour, releasing a 12-track album (recorded in Paris) that consisted entirely of quirky baroque-style cover versions of songs by The Beatles, entitled Beatles Arias. The instrumental backing was scored for a classical string quartet or wind quintet plus harpsichord or organ. Most of the tracks were arranged by Guy Boyer, and most of the songs featured him on harpsichord. The original cover illustration for the album was by Gerald Scarfe. The album was reissued on CD in 2005 with bonus tracks including a 1975 French radio interview, and three live tracks featuring Berberian performing songs from the album, recorded at French music festivals in the early 1980s, with accompaniment by Italian composer–musician Bruno Canino and arrangements by noted Dutch composer Louis Andriessen.[3]

Sylvano Bussotti, John Cage, Hans Werner Henze, William Walton, Igor Stravinsky, and Anthony Burgess[4] also composed works for her voice. Although Berberian was based in Milan from the time of her studies there, she taught at both Vancouver University and the Rheinische Musikschule in Cologne during the 1970s. Following her death, Berio composed Requies: in memoriam Cathy Berberian which premiered in Lausanne on 26 March 1984.[5]

She is mentioned in the Steely Dan song "Your Gold Teeth" from the 1973 album Countdown to Ecstasy :

"Even Cathy Berberian knows / There's one roulade she can't sing."

Berberian was also a translator. With Umberto Eco she translated into Italian works by Jules Feiffer and, with other Italian translators, works by Woody Allen. Eco and Berberian worked together in other projects too and he nicknamed her magnificathy. This nickname with a different spelling chosen by Berberian herself: magnifiCathy was later used as the title of one of her most well known albums.

Death[edit]

Berberian was due to appear on March 7, 1983 in a broadcast for RAI Italian Television in Rome. She had to perform the Italian version of The Internationale, the anthem of international socialism. On 6 March she left her apartment in Milan with Luigi Manca who had helped her from many years in her daily routine and who was also her second husband. Arriving at Rome airport, the couple went straight to a restaurant owned by a friend of Berberian. Afterwards, in a taxi that was taking them to the Hotel Mondial, Berberian became unwell. As soon as they reached their hotel rooms a doctor was summoned and when arrived he could only declare Berberian's death, due to a heart attack, as was later confirmed by the autopsy.

Her body was cremated in Rome and the urn with her ashes was brought to Milan where, on 13 March, a ceremony was held in the Armenian Church of Via Jommelli. The ashes were divided between Berberian's brother Ervant and her daughter Cristina who later dispersed them in the Mediterranean sea, in front of the city of Oneglia, along with pink orchids, Berberian's favorite flower.

Discography[edit]

  • The fairy Queen Suite (Angelicum, 1956) by Henry Purcell, orchestra conducted by Bruno Maderna.
  • Thema (Omaggio a Joyce) by Luciano Berio (Turnabout, 1958)
  • Ora Mi Alzo and Autostrada music by Luciano Berio and words by Italo Calvino from Allez hop (Philips, 1960), orchestra conducted by Bruno Maderna
  • Circles (Berio), Frammento (Bussotti), Aria with fontana mix (Cage) (Time, 1961)
  • Elegy for J.F.K. recorded in December 1964 and included in Recent Stravinsky-Conducted by the Composer (Columbia)
  • Luciano Berio. Sequenza III (for woman's voice). Visage (Candide, 1965)
  • Rounds with voice by Luciano Berio, included in the Lp Das Moderne Cembalo Der Antoinette Vischer (Wergo, 1965)
  • Beatles Arias (Philips, 1967) published in France and the UK (Polydor, 1967) with the same title. Published in the US as Revolution (Fontana Philips, 1967) and in Germany as Beatles arias for special fans (Philips, 1967)
  • Roman Haubenstock-Ramati. Credential or think, think lucky (Wergo, 1967)
  • Henri Pousseur-Michel Butor. Jeu de Miroirs de Votre Faust (Wergo, 1968)
  • Claudio Monteverdi. L'Orfeo, as Messaggera and Speranza. Concertus musicus Wien conducted by Nikolaus Harnoncourt (Telefunken, 1969)
  • Chem Grna Khagha and Karoun A, both especially recorded for the double Lp The music of Komitas (KCC, 1970) made to celebrate the centenary of the birth of Komitas Vartabed.
  • Luciano Berio conducts his Epifanie and Folk Songs. BBC Symphony Orchestra-The Juilliard Ensemble (RCA, 1971)
  • magnifiCathy: the many voices of Cathy Berberian (Wergo 1971) recorded in Milan, Italy.
  • Recital I (for Cathy) (RCA, 1973)
  • Cathy Berberian at the Edinburgh Festival (RCA, 1974) published in USA as There are faires at the bottom of our garden (RCA, 1974)
  • Claudio Monteverdi. L'incoronazione di Poppea, as Ottavia. Concertus musicus Wien conducted by Nikolaus Harnoncourt (Telefunken, 1974)
  • Claudio Monteverdi. Lettera Amorosa-Lamento d'Arianna-Orfeo-Poppea (Telefunken, 1975)
  • Wie einst in schöner'n Tagen-Salonmusik der Grunderzeit (EMI, 1976)
  • William Walton. Façade and Façade 2 (OUP, 1980)
  • Cathy Berberian's Second Hand Songs (TAT, 1981) recorded live on 17 and 18 October 1980 at the Theater Am Turm in Frankfurt, Germany.

Re-releases and compilations on CD[edit]

  • magnifiCathy: the many voices of Cathy Berberian (1988)
  • Ella Fitzgerald/Elisabeth Schwarzkopf/Cathy Berberian (Stradivarius, 1988) contains Bruno Maderna Hyperion. Live recording from the Festival di Musica Contemporanea in Venice. Recorded on 6 September 1964.
  • Cathy Berberian interpreta Berio, Pousseur, Cage (Stradivarius, 1989). Contains live recordings dated 1966, 1967 and 1969.
  • Luciano Berio: Passaggio/Visage (BMG Ricordi, 1991) contains Visage for magnetic tape and voice.
  • Claudio Monteverdi. L'Orfeo (Teldec, 1992)
  • Claudio Monteverdi. L'incoronazione di Poppea (Teldec, 1993)
  • Nel labirinto della voce (Ermitage, 1993 and Aura, 2002)
  • The Unforgettable Cathy Berberian (CO, 1993)
  • Bruno Maderna. Musica elettronica (Stradivarius, 1994) contains Dimensioni II (Invenzioni su una voce).
  • Berio: Recital I for Cathy/Folk Songs (BMG Classic, 1995)
  • Cathy Berberian sings Monteverdi (Teldec, 1995)
  • Hommage à Cathy Berberian (Accord, 1997)
  • Beatles Arias (Telescopic, 2005)
  • Berio Sequenza III/Chamber Music (Lilith, 2006). Also available on vinyl.
  • Wie einst in schöner'n Tagen (Electrola Collection EMI Classic 2013)

DVD[edit]

  • C'è musica e musica (There is music and music). Box set of 2 DVD's (Feltrinelli, originally broadcast on RAI 1972 and released on DVD in 2013). Part 5 of this twelve-part series is titled Mille e una voce (One thousand and a voice) and is completely dedicated to Berberian.

Tributes by other artists[edit]

  • Songs Cathy Sang (Atlantic, 1989) by Linda Hirst
  • Cristina Zavalloni (Radio Popolare/Sensible Records, 2003) by Cristina Zavalloni
  • Salomix-Max: In Memoriam Cathy Berberian (Wergo, 2008) by Salome Kammer

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Randel (1996) p. 67
  2. ^ Official biography on www.cathyberberian.com
  3. ^ Discogs.com - Cathy Berberian: Beatles Arias
  4. ^ Phillips, A Clockwork Counterpoint (2010) p. 65
  5. ^ Universal Edition

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]