Cheng Pu

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Cheng Pu
General of Sun Quan
Born (Unknown)
Died after 210[1]
Names
Traditional Chinese 程普
Simplified Chinese 程普
Pinyin Chéng Pǔ
Wade–Giles Ch'eng Pu
Courtesy name Demou (simplified Chinese: 德谋; traditional Chinese: 德謀; pinyin: Démóu; Wade–Giles: Te-mou)
Other names Cheng Gong (Chinese: 程公; pinyin: Chéng Gōng; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng Kung; literally: "Elder Cheng")
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Cheng.

Cheng Pu (died after 210),[1][2] courtesy name Demou, was a military general serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He previously served under Sun Quan's predecessors – Sun Jian (Sun Quan's father) and Sun Ce (Sun Quan's elder brother).

Early career under Sun Jian[edit]

Cheng Pu was from Tuyin County (土垠縣), Youbeiping Commandery (右北平郡), which is located east of present-day Fengrun District, Tangshan, Hebei. He initially served as a minor official in the local commandery office. He was good-looking, resourceful, and well versed in military strategy.[3]

Cheng Pu later came to serve Sun Jian and joined him in suppressing the Yellow Turban Rebellion in the 180s, defeating the rebels at Wan (宛; present-day Wancheng District, Nanyang, Henan) and Deng (鄧; present-day Dengzhou, Nanyang, Henan). In 190, he participated in the campaign against Dong Zhuo on Sun Jian's side, and defeated Dong's forces at Yangren (陽人). Cheng Pu fought in several battles and had been wounded many times.[4]

Service under Sun Ce[edit]

Sun Jian died in 191 and was succeeded by his eldest son Sun Ce. Cheng Pu continued serving under Sun Ce and accompanied him on his conquests in the Jiangdong region. He aided Sun Ce in conquering Lujiang Commandery (廬江郡) before they crossed the Yangtze River and attacked Hengjiang (橫江), Dangli (當利), where they defeated Zhang Ying and Yu Mi, the subordinates of a rival warlord Liu Yao. Cheng Pu also participated in the conquests of Moling (秣陵), Hushu (湖熟), Jurong (句容) and Qu'e (曲阿). In recognition of his contributions, he was given an additional 2,000 troops under his command and awarded 50 horses. He made many achievements in battle in the subsequent conquests of Wucheng (烏程), Shimu (石木), Bomen (波門), Lingchuan (陵傳) and Yuhang (餘杭).[5]

After Sun Ce conquered Kuaiji Commandery (present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang) from its administrator Wang Lang, he appointed Cheng Pu as the Commandant (都尉) of Wu Commandery (吳郡), with the commandery capital at Qiantang County (錢唐縣). Cheng Pu was later reassigned as the Commandant of Danyang Commandery (丹楊郡) and he moved to Shicheng County (石城縣). He participated in the campaigns at Xuancheng (宣城) and Jing (涇), and helped to pacify rebellions in Wu (吳), Lingyang (陵陽) and Chungu (春穀) counties. When Sun Ce was attacking the bandits led by Zu Lang, he was surrounded by the enemy, but Cheng Pu, accompanied by only one horseman, charged into the encirclement to rescue his lord. Cheng Pu fought fiercely and the bandits withdrew in fear, allowing Sun Ce to escape. Cheng Pu was later appointed as "General of the Household Who Rocks Bandits" (盪寇中郎將) and the Administrator (太守) of Lingling Commandery (零陵郡). He followed Sun Ce in the campaigns against Liu Xun and Huang Zu at Xunyang (尋陽) and Shaxian (沙羨) respectively, before returning to his garrison at Shicheng.[6]

Service under Sun Quan[edit]

When Sun Ce died in 200, Cheng Pu, along with Zhang Zhao and others, pledged allegiance to Sun Quan (Sun Ce's younger brother) and travelled around Sun Quan's territories to attack those who refused to submit to the new lord. Under Sun Quan, Cheng Pu fought at the Battle of Jiangxia in 208 and aided in the conquest of Le'an (樂安) when he passed by Yuzhang (豫章). He later replaced Taishi Ci as the commander of a garrison at Haihun (海昏). During the Battle of Red Cliffs of 208-209, Cheng Pu and Zhou Yu served as the Left and Right Commanders of Sun Quan's army respectively, and scored a major victory in the battle against Cao Cao's forces. Cheng Pu and Zhou Yu also led Sun Quan's forces in the subsequent Battle of Jiangling, a follow-up to the Battle of Red Cliffs, and defeated Cao Cao's general Cao Ren. After those battles, Cheng Pu was promoted to Major-General (裨將軍) and he served as the Administrator (太守) of Jiangxia Commandery (江夏郡), with the commandery capital at Shaxian County (沙羨縣), and was in charge of four counties.[7]

Cheng Pu was the eldest among all the senior military officers under Sun Quan, so the others often addressed him as "Elder Cheng" (程公) to show their respect towards him. He was also known to be a generous man who enjoyed mingling with the scholar-gentry. When Zhou Yu died, Cheng Pu was assigned to replace him as the Administrator (太守) of Nan Commandery (南郡). After Sun Quan agreed to allow his ally Liu Bei to temporarily occupy Nan Commandery, Cheng Pu was relocated to Jiangxia Commandery. Cheng Pu was subsequently promoted to "General Who Rocks Bandits" (盪寇將軍). It is not known when he died.[8]

Death[edit]

Cheng Pu's biography did not state when he died. However, the Wu Shu (吳書; Book of Wu), written by Wei Zhao, mentioned that Cheng Pu killed hundreds of traitors and had their bodies were thrown into a fire. He became ill after that incident and died after more than 100 days later.[9]

In 229, after Sun Quan declared himself "Emperor of Eastern Wu", he granted Cheng Pu's son, Cheng Zi (程咨), a marquis title in recognition of Cheng Pu's contributions.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Sanguozhi did not state when Cheng Pu died. However, it is known that he died after 210, the year in which Zhou Yu died. Quote from Sanguozhi vol. 55: (周瑜卒,代領南郡太守。權分荊州與劉備,普復還領江夏,遷盪寇將軍,卒。)
  2. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 90. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  3. ^ (程普字德謀,右北平土垠人也。初為州郡吏,有容貌計略,善於應對。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  4. ^ (從孫堅征伐,討黃巾於宛、鄧,破董卓於陽人,攻城野戰,身被創夷。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  5. ^ (堅薨,復隨孫策在淮南,從攻廬江,拔之,還俱東渡。策到橫江、當利,破張英、于麋等,轉下秣陵、湖熟、句容、曲阿,普皆有功,增兵二千,騎五十匹。進破烏程、石木、波門、陵傳、餘杭,普功為多。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  6. ^ (策入會稽,以普為吳郡都尉,治錢唐。後徙丹楊都尉,居石城。復討宣城、涇、安吳、陵陽、春穀諸賊,皆破之。策甞攻祖郎,大為所圍,普與一騎共蔽扞策,驅馬疾呼,以矛突賊,賊披,策因隨出。後拜盪寇中郎將,領零陵太守,從討劉勳於尋陽,進攻黃祖於沙羨,還鎮石城。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  7. ^ (策薨,與張昭等共輔孫權,遂周旋三郡,平討不服。又從征江夏,還過豫章,別討樂安。樂安平定,代太史慈備海昏,與周瑜為左右督,破曹公於烏林,又進攻南郡,走曹仁。拜裨將軍,領江夏太守,治沙羨,食四縣。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  8. ^ (先出諸將,普最年長,時人皆呼程公。性好施與,喜士大夫。周瑜卒,代領南郡太守。權分荊州與劉備,普復還領江夏,遷盪寇將軍,卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  9. ^ (吳書曰:普殺叛者數百人,皆使投火,即日病癘,百餘日卒。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 55.
  10. ^ (權稱尊號,追論普功,封子咨為亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 55.

Sources[edit]