A circumfix is an affix, a morpheme that is placed around another morpheme. Circumfixes contrast with prefixes, attached to the beginnings of words; suffixes, that are attached at the end; and infixes, inserted in the middle. See also epenthesis. Circumfixes are extremely common in Indonesian, Malay and Georgian.
Germanic languages 
The circumfix is probably most widely known from the German past participle (ge- -t for regular verbs). The verb spielen, for example, has the participle gespielt. Dutch has a similar system (spelen – gespeeld in this case).
East Asian languages 
Austronesian languages 
Indonesian and Malay have eight different circumfixes, namely per- -kan, per- -i, ber- -an, ke- -an, pen- -an, per- -an, se- -nya and ke- -i. For example, the circumfix can be added to the root adil (fair) to form keadilan (fairness).
Other languages 
In most North African and some Levantine varieties of Arabic, verbs are negated by placing the circumfix ma- -š around the verb together with all its prefixes and suffixed direct- and indirect-object pronouns. For example, Egyptian bitgibuhum-laha ("You bring them to her") is negated as ma-bitgibuhum-lahāš ("You don't bring them to her").
In Berber languages the feminine is marked with the circumfix t- -t. The word afus (hand) becomes tafust. In Kabyle, θissliθ "bride" derives from issli "groom". From bni, to build, with t--t we obtain tbnit, thou buildest.
In Hebrew, magdelet "magnifier", for example, the root is gdl "big" (in the H-stem hagdel "to enlarge") and the circumfix is m- -et.
In Czech, as well as in Hungarian, superlative is formed by the circumfix (nej- -ší, resp. leg- -bb). In Czech nejmladší "youngest", for example, the root is mladý "young" and the circumfix is nej- -ší; in Hungarian legnagyobb "biggest", the root is nagy "big" and the circumfix is leg- -bb.
In Gurmanchema, noun classes are indicated by circumfix.
See also 
- Tadmor, Uri (2005), "Malay-Indonesian and Malayic languages", in Strazny, Philipp, Encyclopedia of Linguistics, New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 644–647
- Colarusso, John (2005), "Georgian and Caucasian languages", in Strazny, Philipp, Encyclopedia of Linguistics, New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 380–383
- Boeckx, Cedric; Niinuma, Fumikazu (2004), "Conditions on Agreement in Japanese", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 22 (3): 453–480, doi:10.1023/B:NALA.0000027669.59667.c5
- Baryadi, I. Praptomo (2011). Morfologi dalam Ilmu Bahasa (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University Publishers. pp. 42–43.