Climate of Moscow

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Moscow
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
46
 
−4
−9
 
 
36
 
−3
−10
 
 
33
 
3
−4
 
 
38
 
11
3
 
 
52
 
18
8
 
 
84
 
22
12
 
 
90
 
24
15
 
 
80
 
22
13
 
 
67
 
16
8
 
 
66
 
9
3
 
 
60
 
1
−3
 
 
53
 
−3
−7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Moscow has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, sometimes hot, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around 23 °C (73 °F), but during heat waves, which can occur anytime from May to September, daytime temperature highs often top 30 °C (86 °F) for sometimes one or two weeks. In the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately −10 °C (14 °F), though there can be periods of warmth with temperatures rising above 0 °C (32 °F). Summer lasts from mid-May to the beginning of September. Winter lasts from the beginning of November to the end of March.

Monthly averages and records for Moscow[edit]

Location of the VVC weather station on the map of Moscow

The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C (100.8 °F) on July 29, and minimum temperature recorded was −42 °C (−44 °F).[1] 2010 In 2007 three record highs for the month occurred – January + 8.6 °C (47.5 °F), March + 17.5 °C (63.5 °F), and May + 33.2 °C (91.8 °F); in 2008, there were new record highs for December and the entire winter: + 9.6 °C (49.3 °F). On July 23, 2010, the temperature reached 36.7 °C (98.1 °F)[2] and continued to set record highs each following day until it finally reached + 38.2 °C (100.8 °F) on July 29, 2010. In November 2010 a new month record high of +14.5 °C (58.1 °F) occurred (after +12.6 in 1927).

Maximum temperature in Moscow and near regions during 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave

Average annual temperature in Moscow is 5.8 °C (42.4 °F), but recently (2007, 2008) it has been higher than 7 °C (45 °F).[3] In the first half of the 20th century, there was light night frost in late summer.[3]

Monthly rainfall totals vary minimally throughout the year, although the precipitation levels tend to be higher during the summer than during the winter. Due to the significant variation in temperature between the winter and summer months as well as the limited fluctuation in precipitation levels during the summer, Moscow is considered to be within a continental climate zone.

Most of records and averages are given for VVC weather station, located in the North-Eastern administrative okrug of Moscow. The temperature from this station averages 0.5–1 °C lower than in the city center, and 0.5–2 °C higher than night minimums in the suburbs.[4]

Climate data for Moscow (period 2001-2011, Vnukovo airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−5.1
(22.8)
2.7
(36.9)
11.4
(52.5)
19.0
(66.2)
21.8
(71.2)
26.2
(79.2)
23.3
(73.9)
16.9
(62.4)
8.6
(47.5)
2.1
(35.8)
−3.4
(25.9)
9.89
(49.81)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−7.6
(18.3)
−0.8
(30.6)
6.8
(44.2)
13.7
(56.7)
16.9
(62.4)
21.0
(69.8)
18.4
(65.1)
12.6
(54.7)
6.0
(42.8)
0.5
(32.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
6.35
(43.43)
Average low °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−10.1
(13.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
2.2
(36)
8.2
(46.8)
11.9
(53.4)
15.7
(60.3)
13.7
(56.7)
8.5
(47.3)
3.4
(38.1)
−0.9
(30.4)
−6.5
(20.3)
2.82
(37.07)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37 65 142 213 274 299 323 242 171 89 33 14 1,902
Source: www.weatheronline.co.uk

"www.weatheronline.co.uk". Retrieved 2011. 

Year of Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Year of Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high (max t°C) 2007 1989 2014 2012 2007 1901 2010 2010 1890 1915 2013 2008 2010 high avg t°C 2007 1990 2007 2000 1949 1841 2010 1839 1851 1967 2013 2006 2008
Record low (min t°C) 1940 1929 1913 1879 1885 1916 1886 1885 1881 1960 1890 1940 1940 low avg t°C 1893 1929 1917 1929 1918 1904 1904 1884 1993 1976 1908 1839 1888


Climate data for Moscow (VVC) normals 1981–2010, records 1879 – the present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.3
(46.9)
19.7
(67.5)
28.9
(84)
33.2
(91.8)
34.9
(94.8)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
32.3
(90.1)
24.0
(75.2)
16.2
(61.2)
9.6
(49.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) −4
(25)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.6
(36.7)
11.3
(52.3)
18.6
(65.5)
22.0
(71.6)
24.3
(75.7)
21.9
(71.4)
15.7
(60.3)
8.7
(47.7)
0.9
(33.6)
−3
(27)
9.6
(49.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−1
(30)
6.7
(44.1)
13.2
(55.8)
17.0
(62.6)
19.2
(66.6)
17.0
(62.6)
11.3
(52.3)
5.6
(42.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F) −9.1
(15.6)
−9.8
(14.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.2
(36)
7.7
(45.9)
12.1
(53.8)
14.4
(57.9)
12.5
(54.5)
7.4
(45.3)
2.7
(36.9)
−3.3
(26.1)
−7.6
(18.3)
2.1
(35.8)
Record low °C (°F) −42.2
(−44)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−32.4
(−26.3)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−16.1
(3)
−32.8
(−27)
−38.8
(−37.8)
−42.2
(−44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 52
(2.05)
41
(1.61)
35
(1.38)
37
(1.46)
49
(1.93)
80
(3.15)
85
(3.35)
82
(3.23)
68
(2.68)
71
(2.8)
55
(2.17)
52
(2.05)
707
(27.86)
Snowfall cm (inches) 22
(8.7)
34
(13.4)
37
(14.6)
16
(6.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
8
(3.1)
15
(5.9)
136
(53.6)
Avg. rainy days 0.8 0.7 3 9 13 14 15 15 15 12 6 2 105.5
Avg. snowy days 18 15 9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 2 10 17 72.2
 % humidity 83 80 74 67 64 70 74 77 81 81 84 85 76.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1,731
Percent possible sunshine 14 27 35 40 53 53 52 51 38 24 13 8 34
Source: [5] [6] [7][8] [9]


Climate data for Moscow, records since 1948 (VVC weather st. only)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.3
(46.9)
19.7
(67.5)
28.9
(84)
33.2
(91.8)
33.9
(93)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
29.4
(84.9)
23.7
(74.7)
14.5
(58.1)
9.6
(49.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Record low °C (°F) −38.1
(−36.6)
−35.2
(−31.4)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−5.0
(23)
0.8
(33.4)
5.1
(41.2)
2.1
(35.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
−16.1
(3)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−38.1
(−36.6)
Source: [10][11][12]

Type of precipitation[edit]

Annual course of temperature at All-Russia Exhibition Centre

Most precipitation in Moscow falls as rain, but in winter months almost all precipitation falls as snow, forming firm snow cover. The last wet snow precipitation may be in the beginning of May, and it may restart at the end of September.

Type of precipitation Jan (days) Feb (days) Mar (days) Apr (days) May (days) Jun (days) Jul (days) Aug (days) Sep (days) Oct (days) Nov (days) Dec (days) year (days)
snow 20 16 11 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 10 18 79
mixed 5 4 6 5 1 0 0 0 1 4 8 7 41
rain 1 1 3 10 12 14 14 14 15 12 6 2 103

Snow cover[edit]

Snow cover (averaging 3–5 months per year) is formed at the beginning of November and melts in beginning of April, but in recent years snow cover has lasted shorter than usual. For example, in the winter of 2006–2007 the snow cover didn't form until the end of January, and melted at the beginning of March; in 2007–2008, the snow cover melted at the end of February, and in the 2008–2009 winter, snow cover didn't form until the end of December, which is one month later than usual. Yet in 2011-2012 it melted in the middle of April.

month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
number of days 31 28 28 4 - - - - - 3 16 28
height (cm) 26 35 29 2 - - - - - - 3 13
max.height (cm) 63 72 78 61 - - - - - 19 25 45

Wind[edit]

Speed of wind[edit]

The average wind speed is not high. In the city it is near 2 metres per second; in open places and airports it may top 6 metres per second.

Wind Storms and Tornadoes[edit]

A few times per season, often in the May–September period during thunderstorms, wind speed may exceed 15–35 metres per second. The last powerful wind storm was in 1998, when wind speed was 30–35 metres per second. 157 persons were injured, 8 died, and 2157 buildings were damaged.[13]

Tornadoes were recorded in 1904 and 1945 in Moscow and in 1970, 1971, the 1984 Yaroslavl tornado, 1987, 1994, and 1997 in Moscow Oblast 100 km south-east from Moscow (near Zaraysk), in 2005 in Dubna, and on 3 August 2007 in Krasnogorsk.[14]

In the 3 June 2009 tornado, F3[15] registered near Sergiyev Posad, Moscow oblast.[16][17][18]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.8 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.3

Сloudiness and day light[edit]

Number of clear, cloudy and overcast days[edit]

Typical summer day in Moscow, 17 August 2008

On average Moscow has 1731 hours of sunshine in a year.[19] In 2004–2008, near 1800–2000 hours.[20]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Clear (sunshine) 8 9 10 8 11 7 8 10 8 5 3 4 82
Partial sunshine 11 10 13 17 16 20 20 17 16 13 9 10 184
Cloudy (overcast) 12 9 9 5 4 3 4 4 6 12 18 17 98

Daylight, average number of hours/day[edit]

Hours Jan (hours) Feb (hours) Mar (hours) Apr (hours) May (hours) Jun (hours) Jul (hours) Aug (hours) Sep (hours) Oct (hours) Nov (hours) Dec (hours)
Day 7.9 9.7 11.9 14.3 16.3 17.4 16.8 14.9 12.7 10.5 8.4 7.2
Night 16.1 14.3 12.1 9.7 7.7 6.6 7.2 9.1 11.3 13.5 15.6 16.8

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Moscow, Russia". Weatherbase. 
  2. ^ "Air temperatures in Moscow beat all records". Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  3. ^ a b "Pogoda.ru.net (data), see article "Средняя (average)"" (in Russian). Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Data from weather stations of Moscow region in real time" (in Russian). Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Thermograph.ru averages". Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  6. ^ a b "Pogoda & Climate (Weather & Climate)" (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  7. ^ a b "Climate monitor 2005-2011" (in Russian). Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  8. ^ a b "Average monthly Sunshine hours" (in Russian). Meteoweb.ru. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  9. ^ "Average Snowfall" (in Russian). climatebase.ru. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  10. ^ "2008 was the warmest year in Moscow history (in Russian)". Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  11. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  12. ^ "August high" (in Russian). Retrieved August 7, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Hurricanes in regions of Russia 1998-2007" (in Russian). Retrieved March 23, 2009. 
  14. ^ http://www.meteoweb.ru/uragan002.php
  15. ^ http://essl.org/ESWD/ Краснозаводск / Krasnozavodsk Moskva fylke Tornado intensity: F3 T6
  16. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfH7C0c2_Mg&feature%20=player_embedded
  17. ^ http://mutterdu.livejournal.com/12810.html
  18. ^ http://4annel.livejournal.com/60396.html
  19. ^ "2008 was the warmest year in Moscow history (in Russian)". Retrieved 2009-02-05. [dead link]
  20. ^ "Sunshine hours in 2007 (in Russian)". Retrieved 2009-02-21. 

Coordinates: 55°45′0″N 37°37′0″E / 55.75000°N 37.61667°E / 55.75000; 37.61667