Cloud Atlas (novel)
First edition cover
|Cover artist||E.S. Allen|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
|Pages||544 (first edition, hardback)|
|ISBN||0-340-82277-5 (first edition, hardback)|
|Dewey Decimal||823/.92 22|
|LC Class||PR6063.I785 C58 2004b|
|Followed by||Black Swan Green|
Cloud Atlas is a 2004 novel, the third book by British author David Mitchell. It consists of six nested stories that take the reader from the remote South Pacific in the nineteenth century to a distant, post-apocalyptic future. It won the British Book Awards Literary Fiction Award and the Richard & Judy Book of the Year award, and was short-listed for the 2004 Booker Prize, Nebula Award, Arthur C. Clarke Award, and other awards.
- 1 Plot summary
- 1.1 The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing (Part 1)
- 1.2 Letters from Zedelghem (Part 1)
- 1.3 Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery (Part 1)
- 1.4 The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish (Part 1)
- 1.5 An Orison of Sonmi~451 (Part 1)
- 1.6 Sloosha's Crossin' an' Ev'rythin' After
- 1.7 An Orison of Sonmi~451 (Part 2)
- 1.8 The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish (Part 2)
- 1.9 Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery (Part 2)
- 1.10 Letters from Zedelghem (Part 2)
- 1.11 The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing (Part 2)
- 2 Reception
- 3 Linking themes
- 4 Structure and style
- 5 Film adaptation
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Cloud Atlas consists of six nested stories that take the reader from the remote South Pacific in the nineteenth century to a distant, post-apocalyptic future. Each tale is revealed to be a story that is read (or observed) by the main character in the next. The first five stories are interrupted at a key moment. After the sixth story, the other five stories are returned to and closed, in reverse chronological order, and each ends with the main character reading or observing the chronologically previous work in the chain. Eventually, readers end where they started, with Adam Ewing in the nineteenth century South Pacific. Each story contains a document, movie or tradition that also appears in a previous story. It shows how history not only repeats itself, but also connects to people in all time periods and places.
The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing (Part 1)
The first story begins in the Chatham Islands (a remote Pacific Ocean archipelago), in 1850. Adam Ewing, a guileless American notary from San Francisco during the California Gold Rush, awaits repairs to his ship. Ewing witnesses a Moriori slave (pacifists who are exploited by the Māori) being flogged by a Maori man (warriors who are exploited by the British). During the punishment, the victim, Autua, sees pity in the eyes of Adam Ewing and smiles. Later Ewing ascends a high hill called Conical Tor, covered in jungle with no view. He stumbles on the lip of the crater, falls therein, and is knocked out. He awakes to find himself surrounded by hundreds of faces carved in the bark of trees. Ewing, reasoning that those who carved the faces must have had egress from the crater, manages to escape. Descending Conical Tor again, he resolves not to mention the glyphs outside of his journal. As the ship gets underway, Dr. Goose, who is Ewing's only friend aboard the ship, examines the injuries Ewing sustained on the volcano and Ewing also mentions his chronic Ailment. The doctor diagnoses it as a fatal parasite, and recommends a course of treatment that might save Ewing but it will certainly make him feel worse before he gets better. Ewing gratefully accepts. Meanwhile Autua has stowed aboard the ship and hidden himself in Ewing's cabin because he judged Ewing to be a compassionate soul. Ewing breaks the news to the Captain, who is ready to order his First Mate to shoot Autua, but Autua proves he's a first class seaman, so the Captain puts him to work without salary to pay for his passage to Hawaii.
Letters from Zedelghem (Part 1)
The next story is set in Zedelghem, near Bruges, Belgium, 1931. It is told in the form of letters from Robert Frobisher, a recently disowned and penniless, bisexual young English musician, to his old friend and lover, Rufus Sixsmith, back in Cambridge. Frobisher escapes from a hotel without settling his bill and journeys to Zedelghem to offer his services as an amanuensis to a famous but reclusive English composer named Vyvyan Ayrs who is dying of syphilis and nearly blind. Along the way he sleeps with the (male) ship's steward. Frobisher has a comet-shaped birthmark on his shoulder blade. Frobisher auditions and gains the grudging acceptance of Ayrs for his services. Ayrs' wife Jocasta begins to subtly flirt with Frobisher. Ayrs' daughter Eva, however, smells a rat and takes a posture of unrelenting hostility. Soon, however, Frobisher and Ayrs bear fruit with the creation of Der Todtenvogel ("The Death Bird") which is performed nightly in Kraków, where it becomes the talk of the town. Frobisher says he even has begun composing his own music again. Frobisher and Jocasta Ayrs become lovers, but Eva remains suspicious. Frobisher begins taking rare books from Ayrs' collection and selling them to a fence. One of the books he has found is titled The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing but it is ripped in half and it drives him crazy, because, as he says, "A half-read book is a half-finished love affair." He is amused that the author seems unaware that Dr Goose is poisoning him. One time when Jocasta and Frobisher are sleeping together, Ayrs pounds on his door and demands that Frobisher write down the notes he heard in a dream. Jocasta hides in a lump under the covers, and Ayrs, nearly blind, never sees her there. The dream was about a "nightmarish cafe" deep underground where the waitresses all had the same face and ate soap. When he is done humming his tune, he asks if Jocasta ever made advances to Frobisher, who answers, after some embarrassment, "emphatically, no." As the summer comes to an end, Jocasta thanks Robert for "giving Vyvyan his music back." Robert agrees to stay on until next summer at least, as Ayrs asked, time enough to turn his dream music into a major symphony called Eternal Recurrence.
Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery (Part 1)
The third story is written in the style of a mystery/thriller novel, and is set in the fictional city of Buenas Yerbas, California, in 1975. Luisa Rey, a young journalist, investigates reports that a new nuclear power plant is unsafe. Rufus Sixsmith meets Luisa in an elevator and listens to her life story while they are stuck between floors during a power black-out. Her late father was one of the few incorruptible policemen on the force. Luisa says she was willing to lay her life on the line for her journalistic integrity because to do otherwise would be a mockery of her father's life. Sixsmith realizes he can trust Luisa. Later, after the elevator power is restored, Sixsmith expresses to Luisa his concern that the Seaboard HYDRA nuclear power plant isn't as safe as they advertise it to be. Shortly after this admission, he is murdered, and Luisa learns that the businessmen in charge of the plant are conspiring to cover up the dangers and are assassinating potential whistleblowers. From Sixsmith's hotel room, Luisa manages to get hold of some of Frobisher's letters and becomes so enthralled by the composer that she orders his only published work, "Cloud Atlas Sextet." One oddity that Luisa discovers from the letters that she and Frobisher appear to have the same comet-shaped birthmark on the shoulder. Before Luisa can report her findings on the nuclear power plant or Sixsmith murder, a Seaboard-hired assassin who has been following her pushes her car - along with Sixsmith's incriminating report - off a bridge, at which point the story breaks off.
The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish (Part 1)
The fourth story is comic in tone, and set in Britain in the present day. Timothy Cavendish, a 65-year-old vanity press publisher, flees the brothers of his gangster client. Cavendish's brother, exasperated by Timothy's endless pleas for financial aid, books him into a remote hotel, which in fact turns out to be a nursing home from which Timothy cannot escape. After suffering harassment at the hands of a Nurse Noakes, he attempts to run out the door, but is stopped by a security guard, and brought back to the home. He is told he will be punished if he makes any more attempts to flee. In the course of his adventures, Timothy briefly mentions that he is reading a manuscript from a prospective author entitled Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery, which does not impress him. This raises the question of what has been real up to this point in the narrative. Timothy settles into his new surroundings, while still trying to plot a way out. One day, he is struck by some sort of a seizure, just as the chapter ends, leaving his fate unknown for the time being.
An Orison of Sonmi~451 (Part 1)
The fifth story is set in Nea So Copros, a dystopian futuristic state that is gradually revealed to be in Korea and to be a totalitarian state that has evolved from corporate culture. It is told in the form of an interview between Sonmi~451 and an 'archivist' who is recording her story. Sonmi~451 is a genetically engineered fabricant (clone), who is one of many fabricants grown to work at, among other places, a fast-food restaurant called Papa Song's. Fabricants, it is revealed, are treated as slave labor by 'pureblood' society, who stunt the fabricants' consciousness through chemical manipulation. Sonmi~451 encounters individuals from a rebel underground who draw her out of the cloistered fabricant world, and allow her to become self-aware, or "ascended." Sonmi describes watching a pre-Skirmishes film called The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish and being utterly captivated by how it immersed her in a far earlier time. But at precisely the point where the protagonist suffered some sort of seizure, a student interrupts her and Hae-Joo, one of her mentors. He tells them Professor Mephi has been arrested, and that forty or fifty enforcers are looking for them with orders to interrogate Hae-Joo and kill Sonmi on sight. Hae-Joo exudes a sudden grim authority and reveals to Sonmi, while the image of Timothy Cavendish is projected upon him, that he is not who he said he was.
Sloosha's Crossin' an' Ev'rythin' After
The sixth story occupies the central position in the novel, and is the only one not to be interrupted. Zachry, an old man, tells a story from his youth. It is gradually revealed that he lives in a post-apocalyptic society on the Big Island of Hawaii. His people, the valley folk, are peaceful farmers, but are often raided by the violent Kona tribe from the other side of the island. Zachry's people worship a goddess called Sonmi, and know that there was an event called 'The Fall', in which the civilized peoples of Earth - known as the 'Old Uns' - collapsed, and the surviving humans have been reduced to primitivism. They have relatively short lifespans. Big Island is occasionally visited and studied by a technologically sophisticated people known as the Prescients who arrive in ocean-colored boats and trade with the valley folk. One Prescient, a woman called Meronym, comes to stay with the villagers. She observes their technology, culture, and practices. Zachry becomes suspicious, and sneaks into her room, where he finds an 'orison', an egg-shaped device for recording and holographic videoconferencing. He is discovered by someone on the other end of the communication. Zachry's sister Catkin steps on, and is poisoned by a scorpion fish; Meronym reluctantly gives her medicine. When Meronym later requests a guide to take her to the top of Mauna Kea volcano, a place the villagers fear because of the mysterious temples on its summit, Zachry reluctantly guides her. It is revealed that the 'temples' are in fact the ruins of the Mauna Kea Observatories. Meronym shocks Zachry by telling him that their god Sonmi was in fact a human being, and explains the workings of the orison. It can replay Sonmi telling her story to the people. Upon their return, they go with most of the valleysfolk to trade at Honokaa. But first Honokaa, then the valley, is invaded by Kona tribesmen who enslave the villagers. Zachry and Meronym eventually escape, and she takes him to a safer island. The story ends with Zachry's child recalling that his father told many unbelievable tales. The child admits that part of this one may be true because he has inherited Zachry's copy of Sonmi's orison, which he often watches, even though he doesn't speak her language.
An Orison of Sonmi~451 (Part 2)
Sonmi learns the truth about Nea So Copros: that the fabricants are not released after serving their time at work, but are killed and recycled into food and more fabricants. At the rebels' encouragement, she writes an abolitionist Declarations that tells the truth about their society and calls for rebellion. She is then arrested, and finds herself telling her tale to the archivist. She then reveals that she knows everything that happened to her was in fact instigated by the government, to create an artificial enemy figure to encourage the oppression of fabricants by purebloods. But she believes her Declarations will be inspirational nonetheless. Her last wish before being executed is to finish watching the film she began.
The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish (Part 2)
Timothy Cavendish has had a stroke. He took a month to recover, but did not leave Aurora House. He spent much of the time going over the Luisa Rey manuscript. He decides that it should be edited to remove the insinuation that Luisa Rey was Robert Frobisher reincarnated. He is frustrated when he runs out of pages halfway through the novel. While searching the grounds for a way out Cavendish meets a small group of residents who spend their time in the boiler room. Mr. Meeks doesn't say very much. Ernie Blacksmith keeps the boiler running for free, and in return the management turns a blind eye to the occasional bottle of liquor being smuggled in. Ernie says three in four prison escapes fall flat because all the thought goes into the escape, and none on the logistics afterward, like a vehicle and money. Ernie mentions that the arrogant son of Mrs. Hotchkiss, Johns Hotchkiss, leaves his keys in the ignition every time he visits. Hotchkiss is constantly trying to get his mother to reveal the location of all the family jewels, which she buried when she got wind he was about to stick her in Aurora House. The dissidents in the boiler room plan to escape in two days. The plan is a "high-risk sequences of dominoes". The first domino is to get Johns Hotchkiss there with his vehicle. They do that with a stolen mobile phone; they have Cavendish pose as a doctor, and say that Mrs. Hotchkiss is close to death and keeps talking about jewelry. Domino two has Ernie telling Nurse Noakes that Cavendish is dead. Domino three has them convince Nurse Noakes of this by showing her pillows propped under Cavendish's blankets. Cavendish locks her in his room. Domino four has Veronica (one of the dissidents) sending Johns Hotchkiss on a wild goose chase looking for his mother. The dissidents get into Hotchkiss' big Range Rover and ram the gates. They are free of Aurora House, and are surprised that old Mr. Meeks, who hardly ever says a word, somehow found a way to join them. While Cavendish was away, the Hoggins brothers ransacked his office, but Cavendish's secretary Mrs. Latham captured the vandalism on video. She told them to steer clear of Cavendish, or that the footage would end up on the Internet, causing their probations to become prison sentences. The Hoggins brothers were forced to accept a cut of future royalties on Knuckle Sandwich, the Movie. Cavendish has his secretary send an email to the author expressing his interest in publishing the manuscript whose first half he has already read, and a few days later the postman delivers...
Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery (Part 2)
Luisa Rey escapes from the sinking car, but is still pursued by Bill Smoke, the assassin working for Seaboard. She picks up her copy of Robert Frobisher's obscure Cloud Atlas Sextet and is astonished to find that she recognizes it, even though it is a very rare piece. Smoke lures her with a copy of Rufus Sixsmith's report about the Swanekke power plant, but Joe Napier comes to her assistance, and Smoke and Napier kill each other. Luisa is left to expose the corrupt corporate leaders. At the end of the story, she receives a package from Sixsmith's niece, which contains eight more letters from Robert Frobisher addressed to Sixsmith.
Letters from Zedelghem (Part 2)
Frobisher continues to pursue his work with the elderly composer while developing his own Cloud Atlas Sextet. He becomes besotted by Vyvyan Ayrs' daughter, and tries to end the affair with his employer's wife. While packing his things to finally leave the composer, who had begun to steal the young composer's musical ideas, he discovers the second half of The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing propping up the bed. Before sneaking out, he steals Ayrs' Luger. Frobisher secludes himself in a hotel to finish the Sextet, and ultimately decides to kill himself. He is content with this decision as he believes he has completed his best work, but mourns the loss of his one true love, Sixsmith. Before shooting himself in a bathtub, he writes a last letter to Sixsmith, and includes his Sextet and The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing.
The Pacific Journal of Adam Ewing (Part 2)
Ewing visits the island of Raiatea where he observes missionaries preaching to the indigenous peoples, whom they regard as savages, and treat as slaves even as their illnesses kill them off. Back on the ship, he falls further ill, realizing at the last minute that Dr. Goose is poisoning him to steal his possessions. He is rescued by Autua, and having been saved by a slave, resolves to devote his life to the abolitionist movement. Ewing writes that history is not governed by rules, but outcomes. And outcomes are precipitated by vicious and virtuous acts. And those acts are precipitated by belief. If we believe in the ladder of civilization, then that's what we will get. But someday "a purely predatory world shall consume itself". "The devil take the hindmost until the foremost is the hindmost." Selfishness in a species leads to extinction. He imagines his father-in-law's response to his becoming an Abolitionist: he would warn Adam that his life would amount to no more than one drop in a limitless ocean. Adam's proposed reply is, "Yet what is any ocean but a multitude of drops?"
Cloud Atlas was met with positive reviews from most critics who felt that the novel managed to successfully interweave its six stories. The BBC's Keily Oakes said that although the structure of the book could be challenging for readers, "David Mitchell has taken six wildly different stories ... and melded them into one fantastic and complex work." Kirkus Reviews called the book "sheer storytelling brilliance". Laura Miller of the New York Times compared it to the "perfect crossword puzzle", in that it was challenging to read but still fun. The Observer's Hephzibah Anderson called the novel "exhilarating" and commented positively on the links between all six stories. Author and Booker Prize winner A. S. Byatt stated in a review for The Guardian that the novel gives, "a complete narrative pleasure that is rare". The Washington Post's Jeff Turrentine called it a "highly satisfying, and unusually thoughtful, addition to the expanding 'puzzle book' genre." In its "Books Briefly Noted" section, The New Yorker called the novel "virtuosic". Marxist literary critic Fredric Jameson viewed the novel as a new, science-fiction inflected, variation on the historical novel now "defined by its relation to future fully as much as to past".
Criticism focused on the book's failure to meet its lofty goals. F&SF reviewer Robert. K. J. Killheffer praised Mitchell's "talent and inventiveness and willingness to adopt any mode or voice that furthers his ends," but noted that "for all its pleasures, Cloud Atlas falls short of revolutionary." The Daily Telegraph gave the novel a mixed review, focusing on its clashing themes, with Theo Tait noting: "In short, Cloud Atlas spends half its time wanting to be The Simpsons and the other half the Bible."
||This section possibly contains original research. (November 2010)|
Mitchell has said of the book:
Literally all of the main characters, except one, are reincarnations of the same soul in different bodies throughout the novel identified by a birthmark...that's just a symbol really of the universality of human nature. The title itself "Cloud Atlas," the cloud refers to the ever changing manifestations of the Atlas, which is the fixed human nature which is always thus and ever shall be. So the book's theme is predacity, the way individuals prey on individuals, groups on groups, nations on nations, tribes on tribes. So I just take this theme and in a sense reincarnate that theme in another context...
Many other themes permeate the book. Movements of ascent and descent, for example, appear in all six stories. They are suggestive of humanity's larger moral epiphanies and failings. Adam Ewing, whilst ascending the volcano on the Chatham Islands loses his footing and tumbles down into a hollow (pg. 19); Robert Frobisher is forced to jump from the first floor of a hotel to avoid paying his bill (pg. 43); the car of Luisa Rey is shunted off the edge of Swanekke bridge and falls into the water (pg. 144); the author whom Timothy Cavendish publishes ejects a literary critic from the 12th floor of a hotel (pg. 151); the clone, or fabricant, called Sonmi~451 ascends from the underground shopping mall in which she works (pg. 208), and her growing self-consciousness is also explicitly described as an "ascension". Finally, Zachry Bailey and Meronym climb and then descend the Hawaiian mountain of Mauna Kea, Zachry confronting the temptations of the devil (named Ol' Georgie in the book) (pg. 282 onwards).
Moreover, many of the stories have their authenticity challenged in the narrative that succeeds them. Robert Frobisher, for instance, feels that Ewing's purported journal is too neatly structured to be genuine, yet he wonders whether his own Cloud Atlas Sextet, a musical work structured exactly like the novel, is itself little more than a gimmick. "Half-Lives" is implied to be a fictional adventure novel submitted to Timothy Cavendish's literary agency.
The number "six" is repeated throughout the novel. Some examples include: six interlocking stories; the music score Cloud Atlas is a "sextet with overlapping soloists" (not unlike the six stories); Sixsmith is the name of a main character, who is 66 years old; Eva is the result of "six centuries of breeding"; a police officer is shot six times in the back; Napier knew Luisa when she was six; Cavendish is in his sixty-sixth year, he needs 60,000 pounds to avoid being "beat up", his hospital window only opens six inches; Sonmi recites Six Catechisms, drives six-wheeler fords, lives on the university's sixth floor where she is left alone for six days, completes secondary school in six months, New Year's Day is the culmination of a holiday referred to as Sextet; a Prescient woman arrives in Zachry's sixteenth year and plans to stay for six months, he rolls a six'n'six when playing dice, etc.
Structure and style
In an interview, David Mitchell stated that the title was inspired by the piece of music of the same name by the Japanese composer Toshi Ichiyanagi, who was Yoko Ono’s first husband: "I bought the CD just because of that track's beautiful title." Mitchell's previous novel, Number9Dream, had also been inspired by a piece of music by Yoko Ono's more famous husband, John Lennon; Mitchell has said this fact "pleases me ... though I couldn’t duplicate the pattern indefinitely."
The book's style was inspired by Italo Calvino's If On A Winter's Night A Traveller, which contains several incomplete interrupted narratives. Mitchell's innovation was to add a 'mirror' in the centre of his book so that each story could be brought to a conclusion.
Cloud Atlas contains links with Mitchell's other works. The Ghastly Ordeal of Timothy Cavendish and Half-Lives: The First Luisa Rey Mystery revisit minor characters from Mitchell's earlier novel Ghostwritten. And the daughter of Ayrs in Letters from Zedelghem reappears in Black Swan Green as an elderly woman befriended by the main character.
The novel was adapted to film by directors Tom Tykwer and the Wachowskis. With an ensemble cast to cover the film's multiple storylines, production began in September 2011 at Studio Babelsberg in Germany. The film was released in North America on October 26, 2012. In October 2012, Mitchell wrote an article in the Wall Street Journal called "Translating 'Cloud Atlas' Into the Language of Film" in which he describes the work of the adapters as being like translating a work into another language. He stated that he was pleased with the final product as a successful translation from one medium into another.
- Oakes, Keily (2004-10-17). "Review: Cloud Atlas". BBC. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- "Cloud Atlas Review". Kirkus Reviews. 2004-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Miller, Laura (2004-09-14). "Cloud Atlas Review". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Anderson, Hephzibah (2004-02-28). "Observer Review: Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell". The Observer. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Byatt, A. S. (2004-02-28). "Review: Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Turrentine, Jeff (2004-08-22). "Fantastic Voyage". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- "Cloud Atlas". The New Yorker. 2004-08-23. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Fredric Jameson, The Antinomies of Realism, London and New York: Verso, 2013, p. 305.
- "Books", F&SF, April 2005, pp.35-37
- Tait, Theo (2004-03-01). "From Victorian travelogue to airport thriller". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- "Bookclub". BBC Radio 4. June 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Page references from 2004 paperback edition, published by Sceptre
- Mullan, John (2010-06-12). "Guardian book club: Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- Turrentine, Jeff (2004-08-22). "Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Mitchell, David (October 19, 2012). "Translating 'Cloud Atlas' Into the Language of Film". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
- Dillon, S. ed. (2011) David Mitchell: Critical Essays (Kent: Gylphi)