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A conjunctive adverb is an adverb that connects two independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs show cause and effect, sequence, contrast, comparison, or other relationships. The adverbs and adverbial phrases that fit the criteria for a conjunctive adverb are always modifiers of the predicate in the first independent clause.
Conjunctive adverbs can be used only to connect independent clauses, but is one of multiple methods of doing so. It also does not exclude the possibility of having a dependent clause making a compound-complex sentence.
Common conjunctive adverbs
Many common examples listed above are of adverbial phrases, particularly containing prepositions, that are not exclusively a single conjunctive adverb; however, its function and mechanics are identical.
The following rules are considered to be correct punctuation for conjunctive adverbs:
- If a conjunctive adverb is used, the independent clauses must be joined by a semicolon followed by the adverb.
- After a conjunctive adverb must be a comma which precedes the second independent clause being connected.
Like other adverbs, conjunctive adverbs may move around in the clause (or sentence) in which they appear. When they appear at the end of the clause, they are preceded by a comma.
The sentences in question are using an independent clause, followed by a semicolon, the conjunctive adverb, then a comma and the second independent clause.
- He can leap tall buildings in a single bound; furthermore, Dwight Schrute is a hog.
- Bret enjoys video games; therefore, he is a crazy nerd.
- He went to the store; however, he did not buy anything.
- Stephanie lent me a barrel of pickled plums; consequently, she is my girlfriend.
- I sat down alongside Adam; thereafter, he sang.
- Elaine wanted to high-five the friendly giant; consequently, she had to jump to reach him.
- Jade was talking in class; therefore, she got in trouble.
- HyperGrammar: What is an Adverb?. Copyright 1994, 1995, and 1996 by the Faculty of Arts at the University of Ottawa.