Noun particle

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A noun particle is any morpheme that denotes or marks the presence of a noun. Noun particles do not exist in English, but can be found in other languages such as Korean and Japanese.

Korean particles[edit]

Main article: Korean language

Korean particles are postpositions, which differ from English prepositions in that they come after the word they mark.

  • Example #1: 새가 지붕 위에 있어요. (There's a bird on the roof.)

The particle "위에" is used to mean "on" or "above." It follows the word "지붕" ("roof").

  • Example #2: 도서관이 시장 옆에 있어요. (The library is next to the market.)

The particle "옆에" means "next to," and it follows "시장" ("market").

Japanese particles[edit]

Main article: Japanese grammar

Just as in Korean, noun particles follow the noun being marked, and can serve any of several functions in a given sentence.

  • Example #1: 昨日スーパーへ行きました。? (Yesterday, I went to the supermarket.)
    • Kinoo suupaa e ikimashita.

In this example, "e" is the noun particle for "suupaa" ("supermarket"). This particular noun particle denotes direction towards a place, being "supermarket."

  • Example #2: 昼ごはんは私がピザを食べた。(I ate pizza for lunch. lit. As for lunch, I ate pizza.)
    • Hirugohan wa watashi ga piza o tabeta.

The three noun particles ("wa," "ga," and "o") all serve different functions:

  • "wa" - topic marker ("hirugohan" - lunch)
  • "ga" - subject marker ("watashi" - I)
  • "o" - object marker ("piza" - pizza)