Continentalism refers to the agreements or policies that favor the regionalization and/or cooperation between nations within a continent. The term is used more often in the European and North American contexts, but the concept has been applied to other continents including Australia, Africa and South America.
Continentalism in Europe
Continentalism in North America
Historically, the United States of America saw itself as a blossoming continental nation-state. Accordingly, the first governing body for the North American colonists was called the Continental Congress, which sought to receive delegates from across the British colonized areas of the continent, including the future Canadian provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia.
Continentalism later became largely associated with the ideology of Manifest Destiny, which included Spanish territories (now Latin America), the western U.S. as well as Canada. Due to this, the continentalism grew so much in the United States that it transformed into nationalism. Most of the inhabitants of this country, if not all, call themselves "Americans" as a demonym, and say America to refer to the country instead of the continents of North and South America. For a more extensive discussion over this polemical case, read the main article: Use of the word American.
In Canadian political history, continentalism has referred to policies that emphasize Canadian trade and economic ties within the North American continent, particularly the United States, over those with the United Kingdom and the British Empire. In the 19th century, continentalism was one of the three main theories of Canadian nationality, the others being pro-British Imperialism, and Canadian independence.
The most extreme form of continentalism is annexationism, which advocates all or part of Canada joining the United States. Opponents of continentalism often argue that stronger ties with the United States could eventually lead to annexation, and that this is to be feared. Continentalists themselves may or may not be in favour of continuing to deepen ties with the United States beyond the economic and into areas like a customs union, common currency or political union.
The traditional proponent of continentalism was the Liberal Party of Canada, and particularly farmers and resource industries that advocated reciprocity (i.e., free trade) with the United States. The 1911 federal election was fought over the issue of a reciprocity agreement that the Liberal government of Wilfrid Laurier had negotiated with the United States, with the Conservatives of Robert Borden opposing reciprocity. The Conservatives won the election and cancelled the agreement.
However, the Progressive Conservative Party took on many continentalist policies beginning during the Brian Mulroney government in the 1980s, which promoted and successfully signed the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and, later, the North American Free Trade Agreement. These policies were maintained by the Liberal and Conservative governments that followed.
Continentalism today is seen in both negative and positive terms. Canadian economic nationalists typically oppose continentalism. Opposing this, many pro-market neo-liberals and neo-conservatives tend to favour it, on the grounds that it opens up commercial and economic opportunities, allowing free trade between nations. As this process is taking place in parallel with and as part of a broader economic globalization, the increasing trade between Canada and the United States is not generally seen as a threat to Canadian sovereignty.
Continentalism in Australia
Australia approved by referendums held over 1898 - 1900 "The Constitution of Australia" which united the people of the Australian Continent under a single political union separate from the United Kingdom. Further steps of independence were taken with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931 and the Australia Act 1986.
Continentalism in Africa
Continentalism in Africa, commonly referred to as Pan-Africanism, is a sociopolitical world view, philosophy, and movement that seeks to unify native Africans and members of the African diaspora into a "global African community". Pan-Africanism calls for a politically united Africa.
Modern Pan-Africanism began around the beginning of the twentieth century. The African Association, later renamed the Pan-African Association, was organized by Henry Sylvester-Williams around 1887, and the first Pan-African Conference was held in 1900.
Continentalism in South America
Continentalism in South America is linked to and associated with Bolivarianism'; a set of political doctrines that enjoys currency in parts of South America, especially Venezuela. Bolivarianism is named after Simón Bolívar, the 19th century Venezuelan general and liberator who led the struggle for independence throughout much of South America.
Modern support for "Bolivarianism" is centered in Venezuela and maybe partly responsible for the increased momentum and recent founding of USAN. The Union of South American Nations (Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties (help·info) - UZAN, Portuguese: União de Nações Sul-Americanas - UNASUL, Spanish: Unión de Naciones Suramericanas - UNASUR) is an intergovernmental union integrating two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community of Nations, as part of a continuing process of South American integration. It is modeled on the European Union.
- Continental union
- Foreign Investment Review Agency
- United States Articles of Confederation and Perpetual "Union"
- Website detailing the history of the United States "Continental Army" formed by the "Continental Congress" Son of the South
- Commentator on the formation of the European Union who refers to the Commonwealth of Australia as a "Continental Union"
- "Sculpting a Pan-African Culture in the Art of Negritude: A Model for African Artist".
- "The History of Pan-Africanism".
- Article in which the authors asks about the importance of "Continental Union" for Africa
- Article referring to the African Union as a "Continental Union"
- Reuters Article referring to the African Union as a "Continental Union" Reuters
- Fox News Report calls the Union of South American Nations the formation of a "Continental Union" Fox News