|President of Venezuela|
5 March 2013
Acting: 5 March 2013 – 19 April 2013
|Vice President||Jorge Arreaza|
|Preceded by||Hugo Chávez|
|Vice President of Venezuela|
13 October 2012 – 5 March 2013
|Preceded by||Elías Jaua|
|Succeeded by||Jorge Arreaza|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
9 August 2006 – 15 January 2013
|Preceded by||Alí Rodríguez Araque|
|Succeeded by||Elías Jaua|
|Speaker of the National Assembly|
January 2005 – 7 August 2006
|Preceded by||Francisco Ameliach|
|Succeeded by||Cilia Flores|
|Born||Nicolás Maduro Moros
23 November 1962
|Political party||Fifth Republic Movement (Before 2007)
United Socialist Party (2007–present)
Nicolás Maduro Moros (Spanish pronunciation: [nikoˈlaz maˈðuɾo ˈmoɾos]; born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has been President of Venezuela since 2013. Previously he served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
A former bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader, before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions within the Venezuelan Government under Chávez, ultimately being made Foreign Minister in 2006. He was described during this time as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle".
After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. A special election was held on 14 April 2013 to elect a new President, and Maduro won by a 1.5 percent margin as the candidate of the United Socialist Party; he was formally inaugurated on 19 April.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Vice President of Venezuela
- 4 President of Venezuela
- 5 Ideological orientation
- 6 Personal life
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and education
Nicolás Maduro was born on 23 November 1962 in Caracas, Venezuela, the son of a union leader. He attended a public high school at the Liceo José Ávalos in El Valle, a working-class neighborhood on the western outskirts of Caracas. His first introduction to politics was when he became a member of his high school's student union.
Early political career
After leaving school, Maduro found employment as a bus driver for many years. He began his political career in the 1980s, by becoming an unofficial trade unionist representing the bus drivers of the Caracas Metro system. He was also employed as a bodyguard for José Vicente Rangel during Rangel's unsuccessful 1983 presidential campaign. During the 1990s, Maduro was instrumental in founding the Movement of the Fifth Republic, which supported Hugo Chávez in his run for president in 1998.
Maduro was elected on the MVR ticket to the Venezuelan Chamber of Deputies in 1998, to the National Constituent Assembly in 1999, and finally to the National Assembly in 2000, at all times representing the Capital District. The Assembly elected him as Speaker, a role he held from 2005 until 2006.
On 9 August 2006, Maduro was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. According to Rory Carroll, Maduro does not speak foreign languages. During his time as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Venezuela's foreign policy stances included support for Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, and a turnaround in relations with Colombia.
Vice President of Venezuela
Chávez appointed Maduro Vice President of Venezuela on 13 October 2012, shortly after his victory in that month's presidential election. Two months later, on 8 December 2012, Chávez announced that his recurring cancer had returned and that he would be returning to Cuba for emergency surgery and further medical treatment. Chávez said that should his condition worsen and a new presidential election be called to replace him, Venezuelans should vote for Maduro to succeed him. This was the first time that Chávez named a potential successor to his movement, as well as the first time he publicly acknowledged the possibility of his demise.
Chávez's endorsement of Maduro sidelined Diosdado Cabello, a former Vice President and powerful Socialist Party official with ties to the armed forces, who had been widely considered a top candidate to be Chávez's successor. After Maduro was endorsed by Chávez, Cabello "immediately pledged loyalty" to both men.
Upon the death of Chávez on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. He appointed Jorge Arreaza to take his place as Vice President. Since Chávez died within the first four years of his term, the Constitution of Venezuela states that a presidential election had to be held within 30 days of his death. Maduro was unanimously adopted as the Socialist Party's candidate in that election. At the time of his assumption of temporary power, opposition leaders argued that Maduro violated articles 229, 231, and 233 of the Venezuelan Constitution, by assuming power over the President of the National Assembly.
In his speech during the short ceremony in which he formally took over the powers of the President, Maduro said: "Compatriots, I am not here out of personal ambition, out of vanity, or because my surname Maduro is a part of the rancid oligarchy of this country. I am not here because I represent financial groups, neither of the oligarchy nor of American imperialism...I am not here to protect mafias nor groups nor factions."
President of Venezuela
On 14 April 2013, Maduro was elected President of Venezuela, narrowly defeating opposition candidate Henrique Capriles with just 1.5% of the vote separating the two candidates. Capriles immediately demanded a recount, refusing to recognize the outcome as valid. Maduro was later formally inaugurated as President on 19 April, after the election commission had promised a full audit of the election results.
One of the first important presidential programs of Nicolas Maduro became the "Safe Homeland" program, a massive police and military campaign to build security in the country. 3,000 soldiers were deployed to decrease homicide in Venezuela, which has one of the highest rates of homicide in Latin America. Most of these troops were deployed in the state of Miranda (Greater Caracas), which has the highest homicide rate in Venezuela. According to the government, in 2012, more than 16,000 people were killed, a rate of 54 people per 100,000, although the Venezuela Violence Observatory, a campaign group, claims that the homicide rate was in fact 73 people per 100,000. The government claims that the Safe Homeland program has reduced homicides by 55%. However, the program had to be reinitiated one year later after the programs creator, Miguel Rodríguez Torres, was replaced by Carmen Melendez Teresa Rivas.
In October 2013, Maduro requested an enabling law to rule by decree in order to fight corruption and to also fight what he called an 'economic war'. On 24 October, he announced the creation of a new agency, the Vice Ministry of Supreme Happiness, to coordinate all the social programmes. In early December a blackout occurred during a speech in which he spoke on television about plans to reduce inflation battering the automotive industry. He then suggested an act of sabotage and called for the military to be on high alert.
In response to media coverage of the 2014 Venezuelan protests, Maduro expelled CNN. According to the 2013 Global Misery Index Scores, Venezuela was ranked as the top spot globally with the highest misery index score.
Cultural and political image
In October 2013, President Maduro's approval rating stood between 45% and 50% with Reuters stating that it was possibly due to Hugo Chavez's endorsement. One year later in October 2014, President Maduro's approval rating was at 24.5% according to Datanálisis. In November 2014, Datanálisis polls indicated that more than 66% of Venezuelans believed that President Maduro should not finish his six-year term, with government supporters representing more than 25% of those believing that Maduro should resign.
In 2014, Maduro was in TIME Magazines The 100 Most Influential People. In the article, it explained that whether or not Venezuela collapses "now depends on Maduro" saying that it also depends on if Maduro "can step out of the shadow of his pugnacious predecessor and compromise with his opponents". The TIME article further explained how "Maduro is struggling as a litany of ills, from soaring inflation to food shortages, fans popular discontent."
According to Professor Ramón Piñango, a sociologist from the Venezuelan University of IESA, "Maduro has a very strong ideological orientation, close to the communist ideology. Contrary to Diosdado, he is not very pragmatic." However, the World Socialist Web Site has argued that Maduro intends to roll back Chávez's reforms, noting that, "In the conduct of his campaign, Maduro has continued his appeal to right-wing and nationalist sentiments, with repeated invocations of patriotism and the fatherland".
Maduro is married to Cilia Flores, a lawyer and politician who replaced Maduro as President of the National Assembly in August 2006, when he resigned to become Minister of Foreign Affairs; she became the first woman to serve as President of the National Assembly.
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- Neuman, William (22 December 2012). "Waiting to See if a ‘Yes Man’ Picked to Succeed Chávez Might Say Something Else". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
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- "Constitución de la República de Venezuela" (in Spanish).
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- VTV (8 March 2013). "Presidente Maduro: Asumo está banda de Chávez para cumplir el juramento de continuar la Revolución (+Fotos+Video) — Venezolana de Televisión" (in Spanish). Vtv.gob.ve. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- Shoichet, Catherine (15 April 2013). "Chavez's Political Heir Declared Winner; Opponent Demands Recount". CNN. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- Kroth, Olivia (18 April 2013). "Delegations from 15 countries to assist Maduro's inauguration in Venezuela". Pravda.ru. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Venezuela launches massive street security operation". BBC News. 13 May 2013.
- [Carmen Melendez "Relanzado Plan Patria Segura este sábado en todo el territorio nacional (+Fotos)"] Check
|url=scheme (help). Venezolana de Television. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- Maduro requests enabling law for one year (El Universal)
- Venezuela's President seeks to govern by decree (BBC)
- Venezuela's Maduro Seeks New Decree Powers for Economic War (Bloomberg)
- http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/venezuela-fights-shortage-blues-with-new-happiness-agency/2013/10/25/59ba5b5a-3daa-11e3-b0e7-716179a2c2c7_story.html. Missing or empty
- "Venezuelan president strips CNN of press credentials."
- Hanke, John H. "Measuring Misery around the World". The Cato Institute. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Cawthorne, Andrew (4 October 2013). "Venezuela's Maduro stuck in shadow of 'El Comandante' Chavez". Reuters. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Para el 85,7% de los venezolanos la situación del país es mala (encuesta Datanálisis)". La Patilla. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- "Venezuela Is On Borrowed Time". Business Insider. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Kumar, Nikhil (23 April 2014). "The man who holds Venezuela's future". TIME. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Fangmann, Alexander (13 April 2013). "Maduro prepares cutbacks for post-election Venezuela". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- Cawthorne, Andrew; Naranjo, Mario (9 December 2012). "Who is Nicolas Maduro, Possible Successor to Hugo Chávez?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nicolás Maduro.|
- Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores (Venezuelan Foreign Ministry) (Spanish)
- Biography by CIDOB (Spanish)
Alí Rodríguez Araque
|Minister of Foreign Affairs
|Vice President of Venezuela
|President of Venezuela
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela