Romaine lettuce

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Romaine lettuce
Romaine Lettuce heart cross section

Romaine or cos lettuce is a variety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) that grows in a tall head of sturdy leaves with firm ribs down their centers. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat.

Origin and etymology[edit]

In English, the most common name in North America is "romaine", while elsewhere it is known as "cos lettuce".[1] Many dictionaries trace the word cos to the name of the Greek island of Cos, from which the lettuce was presumably introduced.[2] Other authorities trace it to the Arabic word for lettuce, خس khus ([ˈxus]).[3]

It apparently reached the West via Rome, as in Italian it is called lattuga romana and in French laitue romaine, both meaning 'Roman lettuce', hence the name 'romaine', the common term in North American English.[3]


The thick ribs, especially on the older outer leaves, should have a milky fluid which gives the romaine the typically fine-bitter herb taste. Romaine is the usual lettuce used in Caesar salad. Romaine lettuce is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine.

Ritual use[edit]

Romaine lettuce may be used in the Passover Seder as a type of bitter herb, to symbolise the bitterness inflicted by the Egyptians while the Israelites were slaves in Egypt.[4][5]


Romaine lettuce
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 72 kJ (17 kcal)
3.3 g
Dietary fibre 2.1 g
0.3 g
1.2 g
Vitamin A equiv.
290 μg
Folate (B9)
136 μg
Vitamin C
24 mg
Trace metals
33 mg
0.97 mg
30 mg
247 mg
Other constituents
Water 95 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

As with other dark leafy greens, the antioxidants contained within romaine lettuce are believed to help prevent cancer.[6] According to the 2011 edition of the Old Farmer's Almanac, the chlorophyll pigment in dark leafy greens, such as Romaine lettuce, may reduce levels of colon and liver cancer carcinogens.


The day of 22 Germinal in the French Republican Calendar is dedicated to this lettuce.[7]


  1. ^ Walker, Norman Wardhaugh (1970). "Cos or Romaine Lettuce Juice". Fresh Vegetable and Fruit Juices: What's Missing in Your Body?. Book Publishing Company. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, First Edition, 1893, s.v. 'cos'
  3. ^ a b "Cos lettuces are probably not named for the island of Kos but for the Arabic word for lettuce', Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. 'lettuce'. Oxford University Press 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
  4. ^ Bradshaw, Paul; Hoffman, Lawrence (August 19, 2000). "Towards a History of the Paschal Meal". Passover and Easter: Origin and History to Modern Times. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 9780268038595. 
  5. ^ Ronald L. Eisenberg, Jewish Traditions: A JPS Guide, Jewish Publication Society, 2010, ISBN 0827610394 p. 286
  6. ^ American Institute for Cancer Research, "Foods That Fight Cancer: Dark Green Leafy Vegetables".
  7. ^ Tooke, William. The Monarchy of France: its rise, progress, and fall, p. 634


External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of romaine at Wiktionary