Cross of Valour (Canada)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Cross of Valour.
Cross of Valour
Medal of Valour (Canada).svg
Cross of Valour
Awarded by the
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield.svg
Queen of Canada
Type Medal
Awarded for Acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril[1]
Status Currently awarded
Post-nominals CV
Statistics
Established 1 May 1972
First awarded 20 July 1972
Total awarded 20[2]
Posthumous
awards
5[2]
Precedence
Next (higher) Victoria Cross
Next (lower) Member of the Order of Merit[3]
Cross of Valour (Canada) with ribbon bar.svg
Ribbon bar of the Cross of Valour

The Cross of Valour (French: Croix de la vaillance) is a decoration that is, within the Canadian system of honours, the second highest award (superseded only by the Victoria Cross), the highest honour available for Canadian civilians, and the highest of the three Canadian Bravery Decorations. Created in 1972, the medallion is presented to individuals, both Canadians and foreigners, living and deceased, who have performed acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril and grants recipients the ability to use the post-nominal letters CV.[1][4]

History[edit]

The Cross of Valour was conceived of as a replacement for the Order of Canada's Medal of Courage, which had never been awarded since its creation in 1967. On the advice of her Cabinet headed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the Cross of Valour was initiated on 1 May 1972 by Queen Elizabeth II, and presented for the first time on 20 July of the same year. Prior to 1967, the equivalent medal that Canadians received was the George Cross, of which ten were awarded in Canada: eight military, one merchant navy, and one civilian.[5]

The Cross of Valour became the centre of a controversy in 2007, when it was announced from the Chancellery of Honours at the Governor General of Canada's residence, Rideau Hall, that deceased Cobourg, Ontario, police constable Chris Garrett would not be awarded the honour. Garett died on duty after an individual lured him with a false 9-1-1 call and then cut his throat; however, Garett, as he was dying, shot and disabled the assailant, thereby preventing other planned attacks.[6] But, because Garett's nominator waited until the trial for the constable's murderer was concluded, the application arrived at Rideau Hall eight months past the stipulated two-year deadline.[7] After a public outcry, the Governor General-in-Council adjusted the rules of application for the Cross of Valour.[8][9]

Design[edit]

The medal is a cross of four equal limbs rendered in gold, with the obverse enamelled in red and edged with gold, and bearing at the centre a gold maple leaf surrounded by a gold laurel wreath. On the reverse is the Royal Cypher of the reigning Canadian sovereign and a crown above, on the upper arm, while the words VALOUR • VAILLANCE are etched below, extending along the upper edge of the two lateral arms of the cross. The recipient's name and the date of the incident for which they are being honoured are engraved underneath the motto.[4][10] This medallion is worn on the left chest, on light crimson ribbon 38 millimetres (1.5 in) wide: for men, hung from a medal bar, and for women, on a ribbon bow pinned to the left chest; a miniature cross may be worn on the ribbon bar in undress.[10] Should an individual already possessing a Cross of Valour be awarded the medal again for subsequent valourous acts, he or she is granted a gold maple leaf to be carried on the same ring from which the original cross is hung;[4] no bars have been issued to date.[2]

Eligibility[edit]

Anyone may nominate or be nominated for receipt of the Cross of Valour; the incident need not take place in Canada, but Canadian people and/or interests must be involved. The decoration may be awarded posthumously,[1] though nominations must be made no later than two years following either the act of bravery itself or the conclusion of any coroner's or court's inquest into the events for which the person was nominated.[8]

Recipients[edit]

  1. Vaino Olavi Partanen CV CD, posthumously awarded 20 July 1972[11]
  2. Lewis John Stringer CV CD, posthumously awarded 20 July 1972[12]
  3. Mary Dohey CV RN, awarded 1 December 1975[13]
  4. Kenneth Wilfrid Bishop CV, awarded 5 April 1976[14]
  5. Jean Swedberg CV, posthumously awarded 17 May 1976[15]
  6. Thomas Hynes CV, posthumously awarded 11 September 1978[16]
  7. François Emeric Gaston Langelier CV, awarded 2 April 1979[17]
  8. Amédéo Garrammone CV, awarded 28 January 1980[18]
  9. Lester Robert Fudge CV, awarded 6 April 1981[19]
  10. Harold Gilbert Miller CV MB, awarded 6 April 1981[20]
  11. Martin Sceviour CV, awarded 6 April 1981[21]
  12. Anna Ruth Lang CV, awarded 7 June 1982[22]
  13. Robert Gordon Teather CV CD, awarded 25 April 1983[23]
  14. René Marc Jalbert CV CD, awarded 16 July 1984[24]
  15. David Gordon Cheverie CV SC, awarded 13 June 1988[25]
  16. John Wendell MacLean CV, posthumously awarded 30 October 1992[26]
  17. Douglas Fader CV, awarded 16 June 1994[27]
  18. Keith Paul Mitchell CV, MMM, MSM, CD, awarded 11 February 1998[28]
  19. Bryan Keith Pierce CV MMM MSC CD, awarded 11 February 1998[29]
  20. Leslie Arthur Palmer CV, awarded 4 May 2006[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Decorations > Decorations for Bravery". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 11 January 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Decorations > Decorations for Bravery > Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List > Level of Award: Cross of Valour". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  3. ^ Government of Canada (8 December 2010), "Order of Merit (O.M.) Order", Canada Gazette (Queen's Printer for Canada) 144 (25), SI/2010-88, retrieved 10 December 2010 
  4. ^ a b c Veterans Affairs Canada. "Modern Honours of Canada (1972) - Cross of Valour (CV)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada. "Orders and Decorations - George Cross (GC)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Martin, Don (29 November 2007). "Jean seeks shelter from storm". Maclean's (Toronto: Rogers Communications). ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  7. ^ "Petition started to award slain cop Cross of Valour" (in English). CTV. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  8. ^ a b "McGuinty Government Applauds Cross Of Valour Rule Change". Canadian Business Online (Rogers Communications). 13 December 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  9. ^ O'Meara, Jennifer (8 December 2007). "Const. Garrett will be considered for Cross of Valour". News Durhamregion. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  10. ^ a b Robertson, Megan C. "C > Canada > Orders, Decorations and Medals of Canada > Cross of Valour". Retrieved 4 August 2009. 
  11. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, CWO Vaino Olavi Partanen, C.V. , C.D.
  12. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Sergeant Lewis John Stringer, C.V., C.D.
  13. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Miss Mary Dohey, C.V., R.N.
  14. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Kenneth Wilfrid Bishop, C.V.
  15. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mrs. Jean Swedberg, C.V.
  16. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Thomas Hynes, C.V.
  17. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, M. François Emeric Gaston Langelier, C.V.
  18. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Sergent Amédéo Garrammone, C.V.
  19. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Lester Robert Fudge, C.V.
  20. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Harold Gilbert Miller, C.V., M.B.
  21. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Martin Sceviour, C.V.
  22. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mrs. Anna Ruth Lang, C.V.
  23. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Cpl Robert Gordon (Retd) Teather, C.V.
  24. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, M. René Marc Jalbert, C.V., C.D.
  25. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Constable David Gordon Cheverie, C.V., S.C.
  26. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. John Wendell MacLean, C.V.
  27. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Mr. Douglas Fader, C.V.
  28. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, MMM MSM Sgt. Keith Paul Mitchell, C.V., M.M.M., M.S.M., C.D.
  29. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, Master Corporal Bryan Keith Pierce, C.V., M.M.M., M.S.C., C.D.
  30. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada Search: Decorations for Bravery Recipients List, First Officer Leslie Arthur Palmer, C.V.

Further reading[edit]

  • Melady, John (June 1985). Cross of Valour. Richmond Hill: Scholastic Book Service. ISBN 978-0-590-71510-2. 
  • Melady, John (1999). Acts of Courage: 17 Heroes Who Won the Cross of Valour. Richmond Hill: Scholastic Book Service. 

External links[edit]