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In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below −150 °C, −238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. A person who studies elements that have been subjected to extremely cold temperatures is called a cryogenicist. Rather than the relative temperature scales of Celsius and Fahrenheit, cryogenicists use the absolute temperature scales. These are Kelvin (SI units) or Rankine scale (Imperial & US units). The term cryogenics is often mistakenly used in fiction and popular culture to the very different cryonics.
Definitions and distinctions
- The branches of physics and engineering that involve the study of very low temperatures, how to produce them, and how materials behave at those temperatures.
- The branch of biology involving the study of the effects of low temperatures on organisms (most often for the purpose of achieving cryopreservation).
- The branch of surgery applying very low temperatures (down to -196 °C) to destroy malignant tissue, e.g. cancer cells.
- The emerging medical technology of cryopreserving humans and animals with the intention of future revival. Researchers in the field seek to apply the results of many sciences, including cryobiology, cryogenics, rheology, emergency medicine, etc. "Cryogenics" is sometimes erroneously used to mean "Cryonics" in popular culture and the press.
- The practical application of cryoelectronics.
The word cryogenics stems from Greek and means "the production of freezing cold"; however, the term is used today as a synonym for the low-temperature state. It is not well-defined at what point on the temperature scale refrigeration ends and cryogenics begins, but most scientists assume it starts at or below -150 °C or 123 K (about -240 °F). The National Institute of Standards and Technology at Boulder, Colorado has chosen to consider the field of cryogenics as that involving temperatures below −180 °C (-292 °F or 93.15 K). This is a logical dividing line, since the normal boiling points of the so-called permanent gases (such as helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and normal air) lie below −180 °C while the Freon refrigerants, hydrogen sulfide, and other common refrigerants have boiling points above −180 °C.
Liquefied gases, such as liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, are used in many cryogenic applications. Liquid nitrogen is the most commonly used element in cryogenics and is legally purchasable around the world. Liquid helium is also commonly used and allows for the lowest attainable temperatures to be reached.
These liquids are held in either special containers known as Dewar flasks, which are generally about six feet tall (1.8 m) and three feet (91.5 cm) in diameter, or giant tanks in larger commercial operations. Dewar flasks are named after their inventor, James Dewar, the man who first liquefied hydrogen. Museums typically display smaller vacuum flasks fitted in a protective casing.
The field of cryogenics advanced during World War II when scientists found that metals frozen to low temperatures showed more resistance to wear. Based on this theory of cryogenic hardening, the commercial cryogenic processing industry was founded in 1966 by Ed Busch. With a background in the heat treating industry, Busch founded a company in Detroit called CryoTech in 1966 which merged with 300 Below in 1999 to become the world's largest and oldest commercial cryogenic processing company. Busch originally experimented with the possibility of increasing the life of metal tools to anywhere between 200%-400% of the original life expectancy using cryogenic tempering instead of heat treating. This evolved in the late 1990s into the treatment of other parts (that did more than just increase the life of a product) such as amplifier valves (improved sound quality), baseball bats (greater sweet spot), golf clubs (greater sweet spot), racing engines (greater performance under stress), firearms (less warping after continuous shooting), knives, razor blades, brake rotors and even pantyhose. The theory was based on how heat-treating metal works (the temperatures are lowered to room temperature from a high degree causing certain strength increases in the molecular structure to occur) and supposed that continuing the descent would allow for further strength increases. Using liquid nitrogen, CryoTech formulated the first early version of the cryogenic processor. Unfortunately for the newly born industry, the results were unstable, as components sometimes experienced thermal shock when they were cooled too quickly. Some components in early tests even shattered because of the ultra-low temperatures. In the late twentieth century, the field improved significantly with the rise of applied research, which coupled microprocessor based industrial controls to the cryogenic processor in order to create more stable results. The first cryogenic processor to use computer-aided thermal cycling was invented by an aeronautical engineer named Pete Paulin, who concurrently founded 300 Below in Decatur, IL, and was subsequently featured on the Discovery Channel's Next Step television series for his efforts.
Cryogens, like liquid nitrogen, are further used for specialty chilling and freezing applications. Some chemical reactions, like those used to produce the active ingredients for the popular statin drugs, must occur at low temperatures of approximately −100°C (about -148°F). Special cryogenic chemical reactors are used to remove reaction heat and provide a low temperature environment. The freezing of foods and biotechnology products, like vaccines, requires nitrogen in blast freezing or immersion freezing systems. Certain soft or elastic materials become hard and brittle at very low temperatures, which makes cryogenic milling (cryomilling) an option for some materials that cannot easily be milled at higher temperatures.
Cryogenic processing is not a substitute for heat treatment, but rather an extension of the heating - quenching - tempering cycle. Normally, when an item is quenched, the final temperature is ambient. The only reason for this is that most heat treaters do not have cooling equipment. There is nothing metallurgically significant about ambient temperature. The cryogenic process continues this action from ambient temperature down to −320 °F (140 °R; 78 K; −196 °C). In most instances the cryogenic cycle is followed by a heat tempering procedure. As all alloys do not have the same chemical constituents, the tempering procedure varies according to the material's chemical composition, thermal history and/or a tool's particular service application.
The entire process takes 3–4 days.
Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fuels for rockets with liquid hydrogen as the most widely used example. Liquid oxygen (LOX) is even more widely used but as an oxidizer, not a fuel. NASA's workhorse space shuttle used cryogenic hydrogen/oxygen propellant as its primary means of getting into orbit. LOX is also widely used with RP-1 kerosene, a non-cryogenic hydrocarbon, such as in the rockets built for the Soviet space program by Sergei Korolev.
Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev developed a version of its popular design Tu-154 with a cryogenic fuel system, known as the Tu-155. The plane uses a fuel referred to as liquefied natural gas or LNG, and made its first flight in 1989.
Some applications of cryogenics:
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
NMR is one of the most common methods to determine the physical and chemical properties of atoms by detecting the radio frequency absorbed and subsequent relaxation of nuclei in a magnetic field. This is one of the most commonly used characterization techniques and has applications in numerous fields. Primarily, the strong magnetic fields are generated by supercooling electromagnets, although there are spectrometers that do not require cryogens. In traditional superconducting solenoids, liquid helium is used to cool the inner coils because it has a boiling point of around 4 K at ambient pressure. Cheap metallic superconductors can be used for the coil wiring. So-called high-temperature superconducting compounds can be made to super conduct with the use of liquid nitrogen which boils at around 77 K.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MRI is a complex application of NMR where the geometry of the resonances is deconvoluted and used to image objects by detecting the relaxation of protons that have been perturbed by a radio-frequency pulse in the strong magnetic field. This is mostly commonly used in health applications.
- Electric power transmission in big cities
It is difficult to transmit power by overhead cables in big cities, so underground cables are used. But underground cables get heated and the resistance of the wire increases leading to waste of power. Superconductors could be used to increase power throughput, although they would require cryogenic liquids such as nitrogen or helium to cool special alloy-containing cables to increase power transmission. Several feasibility studies have been performed and the field is the subject of an agreement within the International Energy Agency.
- Frozen food
Cryogenic gases are used in transportation of large masses of frozen food. When very large quantities of food must be transported to regions like war zones, earthquake hit regions, etc., they must be stored for a long time, so cryogenic food freezing is used. Cryogenic food freezing is also helpful for large scale food processing industries.
- Forward looking infrared (FLIR)
Many infra-red cameras require their detectors to be cryogenically cooled.
- Blood banking
Certain rare blood groups are stored at low temperatures, such as -165 °C.
Cryogenic cooling of devices and material is usually achieved via the use of liquid nitrogen, liquid helium, or a cryocompressor (which uses high pressure helium lines). Newer devices such as pulse cryocoolers and Stirling cryocoolers have been devised. The most recent development in cryogenics is the use of magnets as regenerators as well as refrigerators. These devices work on the principle known as the magnetocaloric effect.
Cryogenic temperatures, usually well below 77 K (−196 °C) are required to operate cryogenic detectors.
- Absolute zero
- Cells Alive System freezers
- Coldest temperature recorded on Earth
- Cryogenic deburring
- Cryogenic deflashing
- Cryogenic treatment
- Ex-situ conservation
- Frozen zoo
- Lambda point refrigerator
- Linear compressor
- Orders of magnitude (temperature)
- Quantum hydrodynamics
- Superconducting RF
- Timeline of low-temperature technology
- "Cryonics is NOT the Same as Cryogenics". Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- Bilstein, Roger E. (1996). Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles (NASA SP-4206) (The NASA History Series). NASA History Office. pp. 89–91. ISBN 0-7881-8186-6.
- "Discovery Channel Next Step: Cryogenics". American Society for Metals (ASM). 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- Haselden, G. G. (1971) Cryogenic fundamentals Academic Press, New York, ISBN 0-12-330550-0
- 300 Below - Founder of Commercial Cryogenic Industry (Since 1966)
- Technical Description of Cryogenic process to produce LNG
- An Introduction to Cryogenics
- Cryogenics for English Majors: An introduction for non-scientists National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
- Cryogenics, Key to Advanced Science and Technology
- Cryogenic Society of America, Inc. (CSA)
- Tupolev's pages regarding Cryogenic airliners
- Lancaster University, Ultra Low Temperature Physics - ULT research group homepage
- IEA superconductivity agreement