Darrell A. Posey

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Darrell Addison Posey
Born March 14, 1947
Henderson, Kentucky
Died March 6, 2001
Oxford, UK
Nationality USA
Fields Entomology,
Ethnobiology
Institutions Museu Paraense
Emílio Goeldi
Alma mater Louisiana State University
B.A., M.A.
University of Georgia
Ph.D. Anthropology
Doctoral advisor Michael D. Olien
Other academic advisors William G. Haag
Known for Defense of Amazonian Indians
and indigenous intellectual
property rights
Notable awards UN Global 500 award

Darrell Addison Posey (March 14, 1947-March 6, 2001) was an American anthropologist and biologist who vitalized the study of traditional knowledge of indigenous and folk populations in Brazil and other countries. He called his approach ethnobiology and combined research with respect for other cultures, especially indigenous intellectual property rights.

An obituary described him as an "anthropologist who gave up scholarly detachment to fight for the rights of native peoples."[1] He never married and was survived by his parents and brother. He died of a brain tumor, at 53 years of age, in Oxford, England, where he made his home after 1992.

Early life[edit]

Darrell A. Posey was born on March 14, 1947, son of Henry and Pearl Posey, in rural Henderson, Kentucky. From an early age he was a member of the Anglican Church. Educated at Henderson County High School, he had a biology teacher, Mr. Ned Barra, who encouraged his interest in insects.

University studies[edit]

In 1970, Posey was graduated with a B.Sc. in Entomology, by the Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He obtained a M.A. in Anthropology, in 1974, also at the Louisiana State University, with the thesis The Fifth Ward Settlement: A Tri Racial Marginal Group. He obtained a Ph.D. in Anthropology, in 1979, at the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, with the thesis Ethnoentomology of the Gorotire Kayapó of Central Brazil.

Posey's switch from entomology to anthropology was due to his friendship with anthropology professor William G. Haag at Louisiana State University. This is explained in a memorial by Posey.[2]

Even after his move to anthropology, Posey did not cut his ties with entomology. At the University of Georgia, he was a close associate of entomology professor Murray S. Blum. Years afterward, he continued to research the ethnobiology of insects, a field he termed "ethnoentomology" in his 1979 doctoral thesis.

Kayapó studies[edit]

Arriving in Brazil in 1976, Posey made lasting friendships with researchers at the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, in Belém, and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus.

After his graduate studies, Posey returned to Brazil in 1982, as a professor in the Department of Biology at the Federal University of Maranhão in São Luís, then reorganized under the chairmanship of geneticist Dr. Warwick E. Kerr. He mounted an interdisciplinary ethnobiological research project, called the Kayapó Project, that would eventually involve over 30 specialists in fields such as agronomy, botany, entomology, plant genetics, astronomy, soil sciences, human geography, anthropology, and linguistics. To document the extensive traditional biological knowledge of the Kayapó Indians, Posey and collaborators spent months in the field with Kayapó specialists such as chiefs Uté, Toto-i, Kanhunk, and Paiakan. Pajés Beptopup and Kwyre-ka also offered their experience. Many conferences with scientific and indigenous project participants served to disseminate project results, especially at Brazilian scientific conclaves.

The Kayapó Project continued when Posey relocated in 1986 to the Goeldi Museum in Belém, Brazil, at the invitation of museum director Dr. Guilherme M. de La Penha. In 1988 he organized the First International Congress of Ethnobiology, in Belém, during which the Kayapó Project and its results were highlighted.

Ethnobiological research[edit]

Although the term "ethnobiology" had been used in the past for a different idea, Posey adopted this for his study of indigenous and folk knowledge about plants, animals, and ecosystems. To designate other areas of indigenous and folk knowledge, the term "ethnoscience" can be used in an analogous manner.

In the past, anthropology had been wed to biology in the unholy union of biological determinism, in which Man is treated wholly without culture or the ability to learn. Posey reputiated this view and dared to see indigenous and folk societies as the inheritors of a vast corpus of useful knowledge for the sustainable utilization and management of natural resources. As can be seen in his review of Diamond's best-seller Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies in 1999, Posey would have biological determinism laid to rest. After all, where can one find human groups without culture?

Posey's concept[edit]

For ethnobiology to be scientific, testable hypotheses are generated from information offered by indigenous and folk informants. The emic-etic filter has to be respected, and a decoding of traditional knowledge is necessary to bridge the two cultures.

Field research methods[edit]

Participant-observation in the field with indigenous and traditional communities was always part of Posey's work plan.

Interviews with informants were always unstructured and conducted according to the generative method, specifically designed not to elicit information offered in support of researchers' perceived biases.

Examples from Posey's work[edit]

Do the Kayapó Indians manage their natural resources? Do they plant forest islands in the savanna? Do they recognize eco-zones and know what resources are to be found in each? Is their agriculture sustainable? Their hunting? What about their medicine? Does what they know constitute a science?

Activism[edit]

In his activism, Posey incurred opposition not only from those who would exploit natural resources belonging to Indians but also from scientists and academics who were callous in their disregard for indigenous intellectual property rights. One Brazilian weekly news magazine, Veja, referred to him as a "gigolo of the Indians" for his defense of Indians' human and civil rights.

Indian lands[edit]

Posey's support for indigenous peoples brought him into conflict with the Brazilian government in 1987, when Paiakan and Kube-l, two young Kayapó leaders he was accompanying in Washington, D.C., complained to World Bank officials of a planned hydro-electric dam on the Xingu River that would flood Indian lands. The threat of criminal prosecution from the federal government against Posey and the Kayapó chiefs, for interfering in Brazilian foreign affairs, caused a public outcry both in Brazil and abroad.

In February 1989, Darrell helped organize the "First Meeting of the Indigenous Peoples of the Xingu", the first joint meeting of Amazonian tribes to protest the destruction of the forest, in Altamira, Pará. This event focussed on hydro-electric dams on the Xingu River and caused these ecologically disastrous projects to be cancelled or at least reformulated. In 2008, however, these once-discarded projects are again being proposed by the Brazilian government, with slightly different packaging.

In 1992, Posey was the main organizer of the Earth Parliament, a parallel event at the United Nations' Rio de Janeiro Conference on the Environment (Rio Earth Summit), aimed at valuing indigenous knowledge and rights. The Earth Parliament was a 15-day assembly of indigenous and minority groups held during the 1992 Earth Summit.

Biodiversity conservation[edit]

For Posey, indigenous knowledge was a key to the sustainable use of natural biotic resources. major

Indigenous intellectual property rights[edit]

Like collective rights to land, Indians and other traditional societies have collective intellectual property rights (IPR) to their knowledge. Posey championed the cause of indigenous and folk intellectual property rights during the last decade of his life.

Bioethics of ethnobiology[edit]

Western society has appropriated indigenous and traditional knowledge without recompensation or even recognition. Posey questioned whether scientific research, even of the most disinterested sort, might not lead to the violation of indigenous intellectual property rights or bio-piracy.

Declaration of Belém[edit]

During the July 19–24, 1988 International Congress of Ethnobiology, organized by Posey in Belém, the following document was adopted.[3]

"Declaration of Belém"

Leading anthropologists, biologists, chemists, sociologists and representatives of several indigenous populations met in to discuss common concerns at the First International Congress of Ethnobiology and to found International Society of ethnobiology. Major concerns outlined by conference contributors were the study of the ways that indigenous and rural populations uniquely perceive, utilize, and manage their natural resources and the development of programs that will guarantee the preservation of vital biological and cultural diversity. This declaration was articulated.

As ethnobiologists, we are alarmed that: SINCE

  • Tropical forests and other fragile ecosystems are disappearing;
  • Many species, both plant and animal, are threatened with extinction;
  • Indigenous cultures around the world are being disrupted and destroyed.

AND GIVEN

  • That economic, agricultural and health conditions of people are dependent on these resources;
  • That native people have been stewards of 95% of the world's genetic resources, and
  • That there is an inextricable link between cultural and biological diversity.

WE, MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ETHNOBIOLOGY STRONGLY URGE ACTIONS AS FOLLOWS:

  • Henceforth, a substantial proportion of development aid must be covered to efforts aimed at ehnobiological inventory, conservation, and management programs;
  • Mechanisms be established by which indigenous specialists are recognized as proper Authorities and are consulted in all programs affecting them, their resources, and their environments;
  • All other inalienable human rights be recognized and guaranteed, including cultural and linguistic identity;
  • Procedures must be developed to compensate native peoples for the utilization of their knowledge and their biological resources;
  • Educational programs must be implemented to alert the global community to the value of ethnobiological knowledge for human well-being;
  • All medical programs include the recognition of and respect for traditional healers and the incorporation of traditional health practices that enhance the health status of these populations;
  • Ethnobiologists make available the results of their research to the native peoples with whom they have worked, especially including dissemination in the native language;
  • Exchange of information should be promoted among indigenous and rural peoples regarding conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of resources."
Belém, Brazil, July 1988

Legacy[edit]

Posey was a full researcher ("Pesquisador Titular") for the Brazilian National Council for Science and Technology at the Goeldi Museum, Belém, Brazil. He was Director of the Programme for Traditional Resource Rights of the Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics and Society and a Fellow of Linacre College, at the University of Oxford. He was Founding President of the International Society for Ethnobiology and was President of the Global Coalition for Bio-Cultural Diversity, under whose auspices he founded the Working Group on Traditional Resource Rights which he coordinated. He was the first recipient of the Sierra Club's "Chico Mendes Award for Outstanding Bravery in Defense of the Environment", and in 1993 he received the United Nations Global 500 Award for "Outstanding Achievement in Service to the Environment."

He had few formal students in Brazil or elsewhere, but his impact as a teacher is remembered by many who later became ethnobiologists. He presented many talks in Brazil and other countries, and his work was featured in several films and videos.

The International Society of Ethnobiology (ISEB) created the "Darrel Posey Fellowship" in order to "promote understanding of peoples' complex and dynamic relationship with their environment, and supports indigenous peoples and local communities working to sustainably manage, and security rights to, their environments and resources. The Darrell Posey fellowship for ethnoecology and traditional resource rights was launched in 2004 with a grant from the Christensen Fund, and is administrated by the International Society of Ethnobiology, of which Darrell Posey was a founder.".[4]

The June 2008 11th International Congress of Ethnobiology in Cusco, Peru, will explicitly explore the Darrell A. Posey legacy in a session titled "Ethnobiology and Traditional Resource Rights: Darrell Posey's Legacy." This session will celebrate Darrell Posey's many contributions and influences in the field of ethnobiology over the past several decades, both direct and indirect.[5]

When Western scientists and other academics listen respectfully and learn at the feet of indigenous and traditional leaders, Posey's legacy will become reality.

Films and videos[edit]

  • 1986. Special segment, Today Show/ NBC (USA) on Kayapó Indian Natural Resource Management; Lisa Freed, producer.
  • 1987. Ciência dos Mebengokre, 2 - part video on ethnobiological knowledge of Kayapó Indians; made with TV GLOBO for "Globo Ciência" (Brazil); Marcia Sanchez, producer.
  • 1988. Alternativos contra Destruição, 2 - part series for TV Manchete (Brazil) on Kayapó natural resource management; made for "Estação Ciência"; Ricardo Monte Rosa, producer.
  • 1988. Without Borders, documentary film made for the United Nations on native peoples; CNN Productions (USA); Barbara Pyle, producer.
  • 1988. Jungle Pharmacy, documentary film made for TV Trust for the Environment, Central TV (Britain) on medicinal plants used by native peoples; Herbert Girardet, producer.
  • 1989. Xingú Encounter, a documentary film about the First Encounter of Indian Peoples in the Amazon, Floresta Films. Neville d'Almeida Director; D. A. Posey, text & narration.
  • 1990. Kayapó Knowledge and the Future of the Amazon, a documentary film about the educational activities and aspects of the ethnobiological research project with the Kayapó Indians, De Campos Produçóes, Belém, Pará; text, narration, editing assistant and co-direction/ production.
  • 1990. Altamira and After, a documentary of the Altamira Encounter and the subsequent activities of the indigenous groups of the Amazon in defense of their native lands and resources, De Campos Produções, Belém, Pará; text, narration, assistant editing and co-production.
  • 1990. Will the Yanomami Survive?, De Campos Produções, Belém, Pará; text, narration, assistant editing and co-production.
  • 1991. The Institute for Ethnobiology of the Amazon—INEA, a documentary about applied ethnobiological research in the Belém-based institute; De Campos Produções, Belém, Pará; text, narration, assistant editing and co-production.
  • 1991. Natural Products and Green Consumerism, a film about "selling the tropical forest" and the problems that result; De Campos Produções, Belém, Pará; text, narration, assistant editing and co-production.
  • 1991. Letter to the Kayapó, a film about the dangers of logging to indigenous peoples, and especially the Kayapó; Footprint Films, London; technical advisor.
  • 1992. Earth Parliament, promotional film about the indigenous gathering for UNCED ‘92 in Rio de Janeiro; Foot Print Films, London; co-production.
  • 1992. Amazon Knowledge, a documentary of the importance of traditional indigenous knowledge of Amazonian Indians, EMA Produções, Brasília, DF, Brazil; text, narration and assistant direction and editing.
  • 1997. The Kayapo: 5 Years after the Earth Summit, CNN Documentary Productions (as scientific advisor & technical assistant).

Selected writings[edit]

Books and edited volumes[edit]

  • Posey, D. A. (1974). The Fifth Ward Settlement: a tri-racial marginal group. Unpublished M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Ethnoentomology of the Gorotire Kayapó of central Brazil. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
  • Posey, D. A., et al. (1987). Alternativas à destruicão: ciência dos Mebengokre [Kayapó] . Belém, Brazil: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. [Museum exhibit catalog]
  • Posey, D. A., & Balée, W. L. (Eds.). (1989). Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies. (Advances in Economic Botany, 7). New York: New York Botanical Garden Press. ISBN 978-0-89327-340-8 ; ISBN 0-89327-340-6
  • Posey, D. A., & Overal, W. L. (Eds.). (1990). Ethnobiology: Implications and Applications. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Ethnobiology, 1988. Belém, Brazil: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. ISBN 85-7098-020-5 ; ISBN 978-85-7098-020-5
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). Indigenous peoples and traditional resource rights: a basis for equitable relationships? . Oxford: Green College Centre for Environmental Policy and Understanding.
  • Posey, D. A., Argumedo, A., da Costa e Silva, E., Dutfield, G., & Plenderleith, K. (1995). Indigenous peoples, traditional technologies and equitable sharing: international instruments for the protection of community intellectual property and traditional resource rights . Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). Equitable Sharing of Benefits: International Instruments for the Protection of Community Intellectual Property and Traditional Resource Rights . The Hague: International Union for the Conservation of Nature/UNA, International Books.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). Provisions and mechanisms of the Convention on Biological Diversity for Access to Traditional Technologies and Benefit Sharing for Indigenous and Local Communities Embodying Traditional Lifestyles. (OCEES Research Paper, 6) . Oxford: Oxford Centre for the Environment, Ethics & Society. ISBN 1-900316-05-6
  • Martin, G. A., Hoare, A. L., & Posey, D. A. (Eds.). (1996 ). Sources for Applying Ethnobotany to Conservation and Community Development: People and Plants Handbook. Paris: UNESCO, WWF & Kew Botanical Gardens.
  • Pei Shengji, Su Yong-ge, Long Chun-lin, Marr, K., & Posey, D. A. (Eds.). (1996). The Challenges of Ethnobiology in the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Ethnobiology. Kunming, China: Yunnan Science and Technology Press.
  • Posey, D. A., Dutfield, G., Plenderleith, K., da Costa e Silva, E., & Argumedo, A. (1996). Traditional Resource Rights: International Instruments for Protection and Compensation for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities . Gland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature. ISBN 2-8317-0355-7
  • Posey, D. A., & Dutfield, G. (1996). Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities . Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. ISBN 0-88936-799-X ; ISBN 978-0-88936-799-9
  • Posey, D. A., & Dutfield, G. (1997). Indigenous peoples and sustainability: cases and actions . Utrecht: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and International Books.
  • Posey, D. A. (Ed.). (1999). Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. London: United Nations Environmental Programme & Intermediate Technology Publications. ISBN 1-85339-397-5 ; ISBN 1-85339-394-0
  • Posey, D. A., & Vertovec, S. A. (Eds.). (2003). Globalization, Globalism, Environments, and Environmentalism: Consciousness of Connections (The Linacre Lectures). Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926452-0 ; ISBN 0-19-926452-X
  • Posey, D. A., & Balick, M. J. (Eds.). (2006). Human Impacts on Amazonia: The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation and Development. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10588-0

Papers and book chapters[edit]

  • Posey, D. A. (1976). Entomological considerations in Southeastern aboriginal demography. Ethnohistory, 23(2), 147-160.
  • Posey, D. A. (1977). An ethnoentomological perspective of the Southeastern Indian belief system. Human Mosaic, 11(1), 1-10.
  • Posey, D. A. (1978). Ethnoentomological survey of Amerind groups in lowland Latin America. The Florida Entomologist, 61(4), 225-229.
  • Posey, D. A. (1978). Freejack lore and anomaly: a study of the Fifth Ward Settlement of southeastern Louisiana. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, 52, 66-71.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Cisão dos Kayapó não impede crescimento populacional. Revista de Atualidade Indígena, 16(16), 52-58.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Kayapo controla inseto com uso adequado do ambiente. Revista de Atualidade Indígena, 14, 47-58.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Origin, development and maintenance of a Louisiana mixed-blood community: the ethnohistory of the Freejacks of the First Ward Settlement Journal of Ethnohistory, 26(2), 177-192.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Pyka-tô-ti: Kayapó mostra a sua aldeia de origem. Revista de Atualidade Indígena, 3(14), 50-57.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). Social name and mixed-blood places: the Freejacks of the Fifth Ward Settlement. The Florida Anthropologist, 32(1), 8-16.
  • Posey, D. A. (1979). The anthropologist and the Big Lips. The Rainbow, 103(3), 20-23.
  • Posey, D. A. (1980). Algumas observaciones ethnoentomológicas sobre grupos Amerindos en la América Latina. América Indígena, 15(1), 105-120.
  • Posey, D. A. (1981). Apicultura popular dos Kayapó. Revista de Atualidade Indígena, 20(1), 36-41.
  • Posey, D. A. (1981). Ethnoentomology of the Kayapó Indians of central Brazil: wasps, warriors and fearless men. Journal of Ethnobiology, 1(1), 165-174.
  • Posey, D. A. (1981). Language variation and ethnicity in an American tri-racial group. In S. Lander & K. Reah (Eds.), Aspects of Linguistic Variation: Proceedings of the Conference on Language Varieties (pp. 1–10). Sheffield, England: Centre for English Cultural Tradition and Language, University of Sheffield.
  • Posey, D. A. (1981). The Kayapó origin of night. Journal of Latin American Indian Literatures, 5(2), 59-63.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). Keepers of the forest. New York Botanical Garden Magazine, 6(1), 18-24.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). Nomadic agriculture in the Amazon. New York Botanical Garden Magazine, 6(1), 18-24.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). The importance of bees to Kayapó Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. The Florida Entomologist, 65(4), 452-458.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). The journey of a Kayapó shaman. Journal of Latin American Indian Literatures, 6(3), 13-19.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). The Kayapó of the Brazilian Amazon. Carnegie Magazine (Carnegie Institute), 61(4), 18-23.
  • Posey, D. A. (1982). Time, space and the interface of divergent cultures: the Kayapó Indians face the future. Revista Brasileira de Antropologia, 25, 89-104.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). Ethnomethodology as an emic guide to cultural systems: the case of the insects and the Kayapó Indians of Amazônia. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 1(3), 135-144.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). Folk apiculture of the Kayapó Indians of Brazil. Biotropica, 15(2), 154-158.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). Indigenous ecological knowledge and the development of the Amazon. In E. F. Moran (Ed.), The Dilemma of Amazonian Development (pp. 225–257). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). Indigenous knowledge and development: An ideological bridge to the future? Ciência e Cultura, 35(7), 877-894.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). Keeping of stingless bees by the Kayapó Indians of Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology, 3(1), 63-73.
  • Posey, D. A. (1983). O conhecimento Kayapó: etnometodologia e sistema cultural. Anuário Antropológico, 81, 109-121.
  • Posey, D. A., Parker, E., da Silva, L. F., & Frechione, J. (1983). Resource exploitation in Amazônia: ethnoecological examples from four populations. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 52(8), 163-203.
  • Frechione, J., Eddins, J., da Silva, L. F., & Posey, D. A. (1984). Ethnoecology as applied anthropology in Amazonian development. Human Organization, 43(2), 95-107.
  • Kerr, W. E., & Posey, D. A. (1984). Informações adicionais sobre an agricultura dos Kayapó. Interciência, 9(6), 392-400.
  • Overal, W. L., & Posey, D. A. (1984). Uso de formigas do gênero Azteca para controle de saúvas entre os Caiapó do Brasil. Ciência e Cultura, 36(Suplemento), 935.
  • Posey, D. A. (1984). A preliminary report on diversified management of the tropical forest by the Kayapó Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. In G. Prance (Ed.), Advances in Economic Botany (Vol. 1, pp. 112–116). New York: The New York Botanical Garden.
  • Posey, D. A. (1984). Keepers of the campo. New York Botanical Garden Magazine, 8, 8-12,32.
  • Posey, D. A. (1984). Os kayapó e a natureza. Ciência Hoje, 4(12), 36-41.
  • Anderson, A. B., & Posey, D. A. (1985). Manejo de cerrado pelos índios Kayapó. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Série Botânica, 2(1), 77-98.
  • Posey, D. A. (1985). Ethnobiology: philosophy and methodology. Los Ensayistas, 18/19, 65-88.
  • Posey, D. A. (1985). Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayapó Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforestry Systems, 3(2), 139-158.
  • Posey, D. A. (1985). Native and indigenous guidelines for new Amazonian development strategies: understanding biological diversity through ethnoecology. In J. Hemming (Ed.), Change in the Amazon Basin (Vol. 1, pp. 156–180). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  • Posey, D. A. (1985). Report from Gorotire: will Kayapó traditions survive? Focus, 7(4), 3.
  • Posey, D. A., & Camargo, J. M. F. (1985). Additional notes on the classification and knowledge of stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae, Hymenoptera) by the Kayapó Indians of Gorotire, Pará, Brazil. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 54(8), 247-274.
  • Elisabetsky, E., & Posey, D. A. (1986). Pesquisa etnofarmacológica e recursos naturais no trópico úmido: o caso dos índios Kayapó do Brasil e suas implicaçoes para a ciência médica. In Anais do Primeiro Simpósio do Trópico Úmido (Vol. 2, pp. 85–93). Belém, Brazil: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Úmido.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Concepts of health, illness, curing and death, in relation to medicinal plants and the appearance of the Messianic King on the Island of Lençois, Maranhão, Brazil. In E. Parker (Ed.), The Amazon Caboclo: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (pp. 279–313). Williamsburg, Virginia: College of William and Mary.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Etnobiologia: teoria e prática. In D. Ribeiro (Ed.), Suma Etnológica Brasileira (Vol. 1 (Etnobiologia), pp. 15–28). Petrópolis, Brazil: Vozes/FINEP.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Etnoecologia e investigação do manejo dos recursos pelos índios Kayapó de Gorotire, Brasil (Ethnoecology and the investigation of resource management by the Kayapo Indians of Gorotire, Brazil). In Anais do Primeiro Simposio do Trópico Úmido (Vol. 6, pp. 63–70). Belém, Brazil: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Úmido.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Etnoentomologia dos tribos indígenas da Amazônia. In D. Ribeiro (Ed.), Suma Etnológica Brasileira (Vol. 1: Etnobiologia, pp. 251–272). Petrópolis, Brazil: Vozes/FINEP.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Hypothesis generation and testing in ethnobiology and ethnoentomology: the "intellectual bridge" between science and cultures. In Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects (18–22 August 1986). Munich: Springer Verlag.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Introduçao. Etnobiologia: teoria e prática. In D. Ribeiro (Ed.), Suma Etnológica Brasileira. Vol. 1. Etnobiologia (pp. 15–25). Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro: Vozes/FINEP.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Manejo da floresta secundária, capoeiras, campos e cerrados (Kayapó). In D. Ribeiro (Ed.), Suma Etnológica Brasileira (Vol. 1 (Etnobiologia), pp. 173–188). Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro: Vozes/FINEP.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Temas e inquirições em etnoentomologia: algumas sugestões quanto à geração e teste de hipóteses. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Série Antropologia, 2(2), 99-134.
  • Posey, D. A. (1986). Topics and issues in ethnoentomology, with some suggestions for the development of hypothesis generation and testing in ethnobiology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 6(1), 99-120.
  • Posey, D. A., & Elisabetsky, E. (1986). Pesquisa etnofarmacológica e recursos naturais no Trópico Umido: o caso dos índios Kayapó e suas implicações para a ciência médica. In Primeiro Simpósio do Trópico Umido (pp. 85–93). Belém, Brazil: Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Trópico Úmido.
  • Anderson, A. B., & Posey, D. A. (1987). Índios e a natureza: reflorestamento indígena. Ciência Hoje, 6(31), 44-51.
  • Anderson, A. B., & Posey, D. A. (1987). Reflorestamento indígena. Ciência Hoje, 6(31), 44-50.
  • Posey, D. A. (1987). An ethnoentomological survey of Brazilian Indians. Entomologia Generalis, 12(2-3), 190-202.
  • Posey, D. A. (1987). Contact before contact: typology of post-Columbian interaction with the Northern Kayapó of the Amazon Basin. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Série Antropologia, 3(2), 135-154.
  • Posey, D. A. (1987). Etnobiologia como uma ciência aplicada e seu papel na criaçao de novos modelos para conservação na Amazônia. In G. Kohlhepp (Ed.), Homem e Natureza na Amazônia. Tübingen: Geographisches Institut, Universität Tübingen.
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  • Posey, D. A. (2000). Ethnobiology and ethnoecology in the context of national laws and international agreements affecting indigenous and local knowledge, traditional resources and intellectual property rights. In R. Ellen, P. Parkes & A. Bicker (Eds.), Indigenous Environmental Knowledge and its transformations. Critical Anthropological Perspectives (pp. 35–54). London: Routledge. ISBN 90-5702-484-5
  • Posey, D. A. (2000). Exploitation of biodiversity and indigenous knowledge in Latin America: challenges to sovereignty and the old order. In C. Cavalcanti (Ed.), The Environment, Sustainable Development and Public Policies: Building Sustainability in Brazil (pp. 186–209). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Press.
  • Posey, D. A. (2000). Selling Grandma: commodification of the sacred. In D. Shankar (Ed.), Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Bangalore, India: Institute for the Revitalization of Traditional Health.
  • Posey, D. A., & Overal, W. L. (2000). Social insects and the Kayapó Indians of the Brazilian Amazon: indigenous appreciation and nomenclature of biodiversity. In Proceedings of the International Congress of Entomology.
  • Laird, S. A., & Posey, D. A. (2001). Professional society standards for biodiversity research: codes of ethics and research guidelines. In S. A. Laird (Ed.), Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice (pp. Chapter 3). London: Earthscan Publications. ISBN 1-85383-698-2
  • Posey, D. A. (2001). Biological and cultural diversity: the inextricable, linked by language and politics [Electronic Version]. Terralingua from http://www.terralingua.org/.
  • Posey, D. A. (2001). Biological and cultural diversity: the inextricable, linked by language and politics. In L. Maffi (Ed.), On Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language, Knowledge, and the Environment (pp. 379–396). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Posey, D. A. (2001). Cultural landscapes. In C. R. Elevitch (Ed.), The Overstory Book: Cultivating Connections with Trees (2 ed., pp. 17–19). Holualoa, Hawaii: Permanent Agriculture Resources. ISBN 0-9702544-3-1
  • Posey, D. A. (2002). Commodification of the sacred through intellectual property rights. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 83(1-2), 3-12.
  • Posey, D. A. (2002). Selling Grandma: commodification of the sacred through intellectual property rights. In E. Barkan & R. Bush (Eds.), Claiming the Stones/Naming the Bones: Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.
  • Posey, D. A. (2002). Upsetting the sacred balance: can the study of indigenous knowledge reflect cosmic connectedness? In P. Sillitoe, A. Bicker & J. Pottier (Eds.), Participating in Development: Approaches to Indigenous Knowledge (pp. 24–42). New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25868-5
  • Posey, D. A. (2003). Fragmenting cosmic connections: converting nature into commodity. In S. A. Vertovec & D. A. Posey (Eds.), Globalization, Globalism, Environments, and Environmentalism: Consciousness of Connections (The Linacre Lectures) (pp. 123–140). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Posey, D. A. (2003). Insects, foods, medicines and folklore in Amazonia. In E. Motte-Florac & J. M. C. Thomas (Eds.), Les "Insectes" Dans La Tradition Orale - Insects in Oral Literature and Tradition (pp. 221–237). Paris: Peeters Publishers. ISBN 90-429-1307-X

Book reviews[edit]

  • Posey, D. A. (1980). (Review of) Folk Literature of the Gê Indians (Wilbert). American Anthropologist, 82(3), 608.
  • Posey, D. A. (1988). (Review of) Pharmacopées traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayäpi (Grenand, Moretti, and Jacquemin). Collection mémoires No. 108. Paris: Orstrom. Interciencia 13(6), 328.
  • Posey, D. A. (1989). (Review of) Pharmacopées traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayäpi (Grenand, Moretti, and Jacquemin). Collection mémoires No. 108. Paris: Orstrom. Journal of Ethnobiology.
  • Posey, D. A. (1990). (Review of) Amazon Frontier: The Defeat of the Brazilian Indians (John Hemming). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Journal of Forest History Society, 34(3), 145.
  • Posey, D. A. (1994). (Review of) In the Society of Nature (Philippe Descola), Cambridge University Press. Journal of Applied Ecology.
  • Posey, D. A. (1994). (Review of) The Ecology of Choice and Symbol: Essays in Honour of Fredrik Barth, Eds. Reidar Gronhaug, Gunnar Haaland, & Gerog Hendriksen. 1991, Bergen, Norway: Alma Mater Forlag. Man.
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). (Review of the film) The Journey Back. Directed by Peter Elsass, Produced by the Danish National Film Board. Visual Anthropology, 7(4), 281-282.
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). (Review of) A Amazônia e a Crise da Modernizacão (eds. Maria Angela d'Incão & Isolda Silveira), Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi/CNPq. Journal of Latin American Studies, 27, 487-488.
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). (Review of) Footprints of the Forest (William L. Balee), Columbia University Press. Times Literary Supplement, 4809 (June 2).
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). (Review of) Footprints of the Forest (William L. Balée), Columbia University Press. Journal of Ethnobiology, 15(1), 154-155.
  • Posey, D. A. (1995). (Review of) In the Society of Nature (Philippe Descola), Cambridge University Press. Journal of Ethnobiology, 15(1), 155-156.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). (Review of) The Spirit of the Soil: Agriculture and Environmental Ethics, Paul Thompson (London: Routledge Press, 1995). Journal of Biogeography.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). (Review of) Dance of the Dolphin: Transformation and Disenchantment, Candace Slater, (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1994). Journal of Latin American Studies(May).
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). (Review of) Indigenous Peoples & the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World, Leslie E. Sponsel, Editor (The University of Arizona Press, 1995). Journal of Biogeography.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). (Review of) This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment, Paul Gottlieb (ed.), London: Routledge Press, 1995). Journal of Biogeography.
  • Posey, D. A. (1996). (Review of) Amazonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise, B. J. Meggars (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995). Journal of Biogeography.
  • Posey, D. A. (1998). (Review of) Changing Fortune: Biodiversity and Peasant Livelihood in the Peruvian Andes, Karl S. Zimmerer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996). Journal of Latin American Studies, 30 , 681-683.
  • Posey, D. A. (1999). (Review of) Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, Jarred Diamond, (Jonathan Cape, London, 1997). Journal of Biogeography (Global Ecology and Biogeography, and Diversity and Distributions).
  • Posey, D. A. (2000). (Review of) A Água e o Homem na Várzea do Careiro, Hilgard O'Reilly Sternberg. 1998, Second Edition, Coleção Friedrich Katzer, Belém, Pará: Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/CNPq (2 vols). Journal of Biogeography.

Further reading[edit]

  • Posey, Darrell Addison (author) & Plenderleith, Kristina (ed.) (2004) Indigenous knowledge and ethics: a Darrell Posey reader. London: Taylor & Francis, Inc. ISBN 978-0-415-32363-5 ISBN 0-415-32363-0.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Times of 31 March 2001 (p. 25)
  2. ^ Darrell A. Posey. 1991(1995). Memories of William G. Haag. Louisiana Archaeology, no. 18.
  3. ^ Text as seen on the International Society of Ethnobiology internet site
  4. ^ International Society of Ethnobiology
  5. ^ 11th International Congress of Ethnobiology. Cusco, Peru, 25–30 June 2008. OR 11th International Congress of Ethnobiology

External links[edit]