Diplomate of National Board
Diplomate of National Board (DNB) is the title awarded by the National Board of Examinations (NBE), an autonomous academic body under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India to candidates who successfully complete their postgraduate or postdoctoral medical education under it.
In 1975, the Government of India established the National Board of Examinations, an autonomous body under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with the prime objective of conducting postgraduate and postdoctoral courses of high and uniform national standard in various disciplines of modern medicine and allied sciences on an All-India single point entrance basis. The Board conducts its postgraduate and postdoctoral programmes in teaching hospitals accredited by it and in medical colleges accredited by the Medical Council of India.
Focus over NBE offered DNB qualification has risen due to mushrooming of various privately owned medical schools of questionable quality. This is compounded by liberal attitude of Human Resource Ministry in granting Deemed University status to these privately owned medical schools, this leading to loosening of control of Medical Council of India over maintenance of merit & quality in these autonomous universities at par with government owned medical schools. Questions about the competence of pass outs from these private colleges (having reckless pass percentage of almost 100%) and concerns related to their employability has also generated interest in doctors with DNB qualifications which are absolutely acquired in transparent manner.
NBE aware of this pitfall associated with involvement of private sector has taken slew of effective measures to maintain tight control and transparency over entry and exit of Doctors with award of DNB qualification , although protested by some for being unnecessarily high handed leading to exorbitantly high failure rates in final exams. Nevertheless DNB candidates are trained in some of the most highly equipped corporate hospitals dispelling any questions about their employability and in fact most of the time absorbed by training institutes themselves.
Recognition of DNB qualifications
The degrees are recognised by the Government of India and a Gazette order is published for the same. Also, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has issued notification mentioning that DNB should always be considered equivalent to MD.
As a general rule, failure rate for final year DNB exams are higher than their MD or MS counterparts. This is especially true for General Surgery,Internal Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Pathology and Family Medicine.The name of the degree awarded by the National Board of Examinations is called "Diplomate of National Board" (DNB). The list of recognised qualifications awarded by the Board in various broad and super specialties as approved by the Government of India are included in the first schedule of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.
The DNB qualifications awarded by the National Board of Examinations have been equated with postgraduate and postdoctoral qualifications awarded by other Indian universities for all purposes, including appointment to teaching posts. 
List of broad specialties for DNB
Three-year postgraduate residency programme is available in the following broad specialties:
1. Anatomy, 2. Physiology, 3. Biochemistry, 4. Pathology, 5. Microbiology, 6. Forensic Medicine, 7. Pharmacology, 8. General Medicine, 9. Paediatrics, 10. Psychiatry, 11. Radio Therapy, 12. Radio Diagnosis, 13. Anaesthesiology, 14. Dermatology & Venereology, 15. Respiratory Diseases, 16. Nuclear Medicine, 17. General Surgery, 18. Orthopedic Surgery, 19. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 20. Ophthalmology, 21. Otorhinolaryngology, 22. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 23. Social and Preventive Medicine, 24. Health Administration (including Hospital Administration), 25. Family Medicine, 26. Immunohematology & Transfusion Medicine, 27. Maternal and Child Health, 28. Rural 29. Field Epidemiology
List of super specialties for DNB
Three-year residency programme is available in the following super-specialties:
1. Cardiology, 2. Gastroenterology, 3. Nephrology, 4. Endocrinology, 5. Neurology, 6. Medical Oncology, 7. Haematology, 8. Rheumatology, 9. Cardio Thoracic Surgery, 10. Paediatric Surgery, 11. Genito Urinary Surgery (Urology), 12. Neurosurgery, 13. Plastic Surgery, 14. Surgical Gastroenterology, 15. Surgical Oncology, 16. Peripheral Vasular Surgery, 17. Neonatology, 18. Thoracic surgery (Started by notice dated August 9 2013 on NBE website). 
List of subspecialties for FNB
The National Board of Examinations also runs postdoctoral fellowship programme in select subspecialties. On successful completion of two-year residency, candidates are awarded Fellow of National Board (FNB).
Fellowship programme is available in the following subspecialties:
1. Critical Care Medicine, 2. Reproductive Medicine, 3. Cardiac Anesthesia, 4. Minimal Access Surgery, 5. Vitreo-Retinal Surgery, 6. Interventional Cardiology, 7. Pediatric Cardiology, 8. Spine Surgery, 9. Hand & Micro Surgery, 10. Trauma Care, 11. Pediatrics Hemato Oncology, 12. Pediatrics Intensive Care, 13. Laboratory Medicine, 14. Infectious Diseases, 15. High Risk Pregnancy & Perinatology.
- The Gazette of India, extraordinary, part II, section 3, subsection ii, February 20, 2009
- Information Bulletin & Application Form for Diplomate of National Board, Centralized Entrance Test, Post Doctoral Courses, January 2010.
- Information Bulletin and Application Form for Fellowship Entrance Exam, January 2010.
- Information Bulletin and Application Form for Fellowship Exit Exam, 2010.