Dorothy Kilgallen

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Dorothy Kilgallen
Dorothy kilgallen.jpg
Born Dorothy Mae Kilgallen
(1913-07-03)July 3, 1913
Chicago, Illinois
Died November 8, 1965(1965-11-08) (aged 52)
Manhattan, New York
Cause of death
Apparent alcohol and drug combination overdose
Resting place
Gate of Heaven Cemetery
Hawthorne, New York
Nationality American
Education Erasmus Hall High School
Alma mater The College of New Rochelle
Occupation Media personality, author, journalist, panelist
Spouse(s) Richard Kollmar (m. 1940–65)
Children 3

Dorothy Mae Kilgallen (July 3, 1913 – November 8, 1965) was an American journalist and television game show panelist. She started her career early as a reporter for the Hearst Corporation's New York Evening Journal after spending two semesters at The College of New Rochelle in New Rochelle, New York.[1] In 1936, she began her newspaper column, The Voice of Broadway, which eventually was syndicated to more than 146 papers.[2][3] She became a regular panelist on the television game show What's My Line? in 1950.

Kilgallen's columns featured mostly show business news and gossip, but also ventured into other topics such as politics and organized crime. She wrote front-page articles on the Sam Sheppard trial and later the John F. Kennedy assassination and claimed to have interviewed Jack Ruby, Lee Harvey Oswald's killer, out of earshot of sheriff's deputies. The circumstances of Kilgallen's death have been the subject of conspiracy theories. As the cause of her death was officially ruled "undetermined,"[4][unreliable source?] and because she openly criticized U.S. government agencies as early as 1959, some believe that Kilgallen was murdered in order to silence her.[5][unreliable source?]

Early life and career[edit]

Kilgallen, born in Chicago, was the daughter of the Hearst newspaperman James Lawrence Kilgallen (1888–1982) and his wife, Mae Ahern.[6] The family moved from Chicago to Wyoming, Indiana, and back to Chicago before finally settling in New York City. Kilgallen's sister Eleanor, six years her junior, became a casting agent for movies and television shows. After two semesters at The College of New Rochelle,[1][unreliable source?] Dorothy Kilgallen dropped out to take a job as a reporter for the New York Evening Journal, which was owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation. She was Roman Catholic.[2]

In 1936, Kilgallen competed with two other New York newspaper reporters in a race around the world using only means of transportation available to the general public. She was the only woman to compete in the contest and she came in second.[7] She described the event in her book Girl Around The World, which is credited as the story idea for the 1937 movie Fly-Away Baby starring Glenda Farrell as a character partly inspired by Kilgallen.[3] During a stint living in Hollywood in 1936 and 1937, Kilgallen wrote a daily column primarily read in New York [8][unreliable source?] that nonetheless provoked a libel suit from Constance Bennett,[9][unreliable source?] "who in the early thirties had been the highest paid performer in motion pictures," according to a Kilgallen biography, "but who was [in 1937] experiencing a temporary decline in popular appeal."[10][unreliable source?]

Kilgallen article about Elvis Presley, c. 1959

Back in New York in 1938, Kilgallen began writing a daily column, the Voice of Broadway, for Hearst's New York Journal American, which the corporation created by merging the Evening Journal with the American.[7] The column, which she wrote until her death in 1965, featured mostly New York show business news and gossip, but also ventured into other topics such as politics and organized crime. The column eventually was syndicated to 146 papers via King Features Syndicate.[2][3]

In April 1940, Kilgallen married Richard Kollmar (1910–1971) who had starred in the musicals Knickerbocker Holiday and Too Many Girls.[11][12] Beginning in April 1945, Kilgallen and Kollmar co-hosted a WOR-AM radio talk show, Breakfast With Dorothy and Dick, from their 16-room apartment at 640 Park Avenue. The show followed them when they bought a Neo-Georgian brownstone at 45 East 68th Street in 1952.[13] The radio program, which like Kilgallen's newspaper column mixed entertainment with serious issues, remained on the air until 1963.[14]

The What's My Line? panel in 1952. From left: Dorothy Kilgallen, Bennett Cerf, Arlene Francis and Hal Block, with John Daly as the host.

In 1950, Kilgallen became a panelist on the American television game show What's My Line?, which was aired on the CBS television network from 1950 to 1967. She remained on the show for 15 years, until her death.[7] Fellow panelist Bennett Cerf claimed that, unlike the rest of the panel members, whose priority was getting a laugh and entertaining the audience, Kilgallen was interested mainly in guessing the correct answers. Cerf asserted that she also would extend her time on camera by asking more questions than necessary, the answers to which she knew would be affirmative.[15]

Cerf described Kilgallen as an outsider among her castmates for two reasons. The first was her conservative point of view, that of a "Hearst girl," which differed from that of the others. The second was that information Kilgallen elicited during conversations in the dressing room shared by all four panelists would subsequently appear in her newspaper column.[16] Cerf, speaking for his fellow panelists, the panel moderator, and himself in an audio-tape-recorded interview at Columbia University two years and two months after Kilgallen's death, said, "We didn't like that."[16]

Kilgallen was among the notables on the guest list of those who attended the coronation of Queen Elizabeth in 1953. Kilgallen's articles won her a Pulitzer Prize nomination during this era.[7]

In 1958, Kilgallen and her husband Kollmar, along with Albert W. Selden, co-produced a musical on Broadway entitled, The Body Beautiful.[17] Kilgallen and her fellow panelists made mention of the show on various episodes of What's My Line? during this time period. On one episode, a cast member of the ill-fated musical (a well-built young man, billed as a "chorus boy" in the episode) appeared as a contestant and stumped the panel.

Controversial articles[edit]

Sam Sheppard murder trial[edit]

In July 1964, Dorothy Kilgallen heard the news of Sam Sheppard's release from the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus. This is the front page of The Columbus Citizen-Journal. One of the newspaper's columnists, Ron Pataky, had met Kilgallen for the first time a month earlier, and they were involved in a long-distance relationship.[18]

Kilgallen covered the 1954 murder trial of Dr. Sam Sheppard.[7] The New York Journal American carried the banner front-page headline that she was "astounded" by the guilty verdict because of what she argued were serious flaws in the prosecution's case.[19] The doctor, whose specialty was osteopathic neurosurgery,[20] was convicted of bludgeoning his wife to death at their home in the Cleveland suburb of Bay Village. In the 1990s, the case was reopened and an aging convict named Richard Eberling became a person of interest,[21] but concrete evidence for a conviction was lacking.[22]

Many Clevelanders believed Dr. Sheppard was guilty,[23][24] including the editors of The Plain Dealer, which carried Kilgallen's syndicated column. Immediately after she wrote that the prosecutors "didn't prove he was guilty any more than they proved there are pin-headed men on Mars," her column was banned from that newspaper, according to a 1972 book on the Sheppard case.[25]

Nine years and some months later, at the Overseas Press Club in New York, she revealed that the judge in the case had told her toward the beginning of the trial that Dr. Sheppard was "guilty as hell".[26] When attorney F. Lee Bailey began the appeal of Sheppard's conviction, resulting in his July 1964 release from prison, he discovered other eyewitness accounts of the judge prejudging the case before hearing testimony or seeing evidence.[27]

Hearst bylines[edit]

Arlene Francis, a fellow What's My Line? panelist, said in 1976, "I thought Dorothy was a marvelous journalist when she covered something like the Sheppard trial. As opposed to her gossip column."[28][unreliable source?] A 1991 history of the Hearst Corporation co-authored by Bill Hearst and Jack Casserly says the company milked famous bylines for all they were worth, encouraging the star reporters to do as many diverse stories as possible to increase circulation and newsstand sales.[29]

Kilgallen's father, Jim, was still a "Hearst star" in 1955 when at age 67 he traveled to Mississippi to cover the trial of two men charged with the murder of Emmett Till for the Hearst-owned International News Service.[30] He also wrote profiles of movie stars. When Jim Kilgallen appeared as an occupational guest on the What's My Line? episode that aired live on November 18, 1956, his daughter guessed who he was.[31] Nobody mentioned on-camera any of the stories he had covered such as the Mississippi trial a year earlier.

Reporting on UFOs[edit]

In a May 22, 1955, report from London, syndicated by the INS, Kilgallen stated, "British scientists and airmen, after examining the wreckage of one mysterious flying ship, are convinced these strange aerial objects are not optical illusions or Soviet inventions, but are flying saucers which originate on another planet. The source of my information is a British official of Cabinet rank who prefers to remain unidentified. 'We believe, on the basis of our inquiry thus far, that the saucers were staffed by small men—probably under four feet tall. It's frightening, but there is no denying the flying saucers come from another planet.'" This article, which was separate from Kilgallen's column, appeared on the front pages of the New York Journal American,[32] the Cincinnati Enquirer,[33] and other newspapers. The Washington Post ran it on page 8.[34]

Kilgallen and the Kennedy assassination[edit]

Kilgallen claimed she conducted an interview with Jack Ruby inside the Dallas courthouse where he was tried for the shooting death of Lee Harvey Oswald, although she never revealed the subject of their purported conversation.[35] Four or five months later, she obtained a copy of Ruby's testimony to the Warren Commission, which was published on the front pages of the Journal American,[36] the Philadelphia Inquirer,[37] the Seattle Post Intelligencer,[38] and other newspapers. Most of that testimony did not become officially available to the public until the commission released its 26 volumes of hearings and exhibits in November 1964, around the time of the first anniversary of the assassination.[39] The first of three installments of the Ruby testimony under Kilgallen's byline appeared in the Journal American on August 18, 1964.[40]

Kilgallen had a history of government criticism, suggesting in 1959 that the CIA recruited members of the Mafia to assassinate Fidel Castro, which many years later was proven to be the case.[41] By the time of the assassination, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had been keeping a file on the "flighty and irresponsible" columnist (his words about her were preserved in his own handwriting)[42] for 25 years.[43][unreliable source?]

The FBI tried to determine who had given the columnist a transcript of Jack Ruby's testimony to the Warren Commission.[44] The agency abandoned, in September 1964, all attempts to identify this source.[44] The attempts had included sending two FBI agents to Kilgallen's house, where she told them she would not identify the source under any circumstances.[44]

This is Kilgallen's reaction to the Warren Commission's release of its single book of conclusions approximately two months before it released its 26 volumes of hearings and exhibits to the public. This is how her column looked in Baltimore, Maryland six days after New Yorkers read it.

The Voice of Broadway as it was published in the Journal American on September 30, 1964, included the following about the release of the single book containing the Warren Commission report, which was about two months before the 26 volumes were released:

...from what I have read, I would be inclined to believe that the Federal Bureau of Investigation might have been more profitably employed in probing the facts of the case rather than how I got them – which does seem a waste of time to me.

At any rate, the whole thing smells a bit fishy. It's a mite too simple that a chap kills the President of the United States, escapes from that bother, kills a policeman, eventually is apprehended in a movie theater under circumstances that defy every law of police procedure, and subsequently is murdered under extraordinary circumstances.

The Warren Report made a great effort to note that the FBI and the Secret Service were delinquent in their duty, and that the press media – TV, radio and newspaper – also were responsible for the confusion that made Oswald's murder possible.

Baloney.

Oswald was not killed by a newspaperman. He was killed by a nightclub owner well-known to the police – Jack Ruby.

How can the Warren Commission pretend to forget that?[45]

In the paragraph on the right side that begins with actor Albert Finney, Dorothy Kilgallen's opinion of The Manchurian Candidate can be seen. This is her daily column as it appeared in the New York Journal American on June 9, 1965. The headline refers to Lee Radziwill.

In her column that the Journal American published on June 9, 1965, Kilgallen called the 1962 film The Manchurian Candidate "a routine melodrama with the plot telegraphed as neatly as if it had been sent by Western Union."[46] She said this at a time when many people who had seen the film before the assassination looked back on it with anxiety and with concern about whether Oswald had watched it or drawn inspiration from it.[47] According to Kilgallen's statement published on June 9, she was prompted to recall her impression of the old film (a few months before an American television network revived it for the first time)[48] because some Hollywood insiders were saying the screenplay for Seconds, scheduled to start filming in the New York area later in 1965, was "as off-beat as The Manchurian Candidate." Kilgallen did not live to see the completion of Seconds, which starred Rock Hudson. She made her point that The Manchurian Candidate was hardly off-beat.

In September 1965, more than a year after her scoop of Jack Ruby's testimony to the Warren Commission, Kilgallen said, referring to the murders of JFK, police officer J. D. Tippit and Oswald, "That story isn't going to die as long as there's a real reporter alive, and there are a lot of them alive."[49] That was the last sentence in her column item about Marina Oswald Porter's possible knowledge of the possible doctoring of an incriminating snapshot she had taken of Lee holding a rifle and The Militant socialist newspaper that Life featured on its cover in 1964.[49]

Other controversy[edit]

Though Kilgallen and Frank Sinatra were fairly good friends for several years and were photographed rehearsing in a radio studio for a 1948 broadcast, she grew antagonistic toward the singer in her daily column, culminating in the multi-part 1956 front-page feature story "The Frank Sinatra Story".[50] Sinatra was angered by this and referred to her publicly as the "chinless wonder," although evidence suggests he did so only during breaks between songs at his concerts in New York and Las Vegas, not on his network television specials of the 1960s or 1970s or on radio shows.[51] In a 1963 Rat Pack performance at the Sands Hotel in Las Vegas, Sinatra closed the show with a joke: "As a parting remark, ladies and gentlemen, we'd like to leave you with one thought. If you happen to run into Dorothy Kilgallen, be sure you're in your car."[52] A recording of the concert became available publicly for the first time in 2001, when Kilgallen and Sinatra were both dead.[53]

When country music performers from Nashville's Grand Ole Opry appeared in concert at Carnegie Hall to benefit New York's Musicians Aid Society in 1961, Kilgallen dismissed them as "hicks from the sticks". In her column she advised that "everyone should leave town. The hillbillies are coming".[54] Patsy Cline, one of the headliners, responded that "Miss Dorothy called us Nashville performers 'the gang from Grand Ole Opry - hicks from the sticks.' And if I have the pleasure of seeing that wicked witch, I'll let her know how proud I am to be a hick from the sticks."[54]

Near the end of her life, Kilgallen was embroiled in yet another controversy. The musical Skyscraper was in previews at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre. In October 1965 Kilgallen attended a preview, which was a benefit for charity. There has been a long tradition of not reviewing a show that is still in previews, because the point of previews is to test audience reaction and make changes.[55] That did not stop Kilgallen. She panned the show in one of her columns, calling it a "turkey."[56] There was quite an uproar from the theatrical community. She died very shortly after this final controversy in her life. Skyscraper officially opened five days after her death to mixed reviews, had a moderately successful run of 248 performances, and was nominated for five Tony Awards, including Best Musical and Best Actress in a Musical.[57] No movie or television adaptation has ever been made, nor has it been revived in the Broadway theatre.

Death[edit]

Dorothy Kilgallen's last appearance on What's My Line? on November 7, 1965. Within five hours of the live program's end, she was dead.

On November 8, 1965, Kilgallen was found dead on the third floor of her five-story brownstone, just 12 hours after she had appeared live on What's My Line?. Her hairdresser, Marc Sinclaire, found her body when he arrived that morning to style her hair.[7] He said decades later that she always slept on the fifth floor, adding that on November 8 he used his key to the brownstone and went directly to the third floor where he always did her hair near her large wardrobe closet.[7] She had apparently succumbed to a fatal combination of alcohol and barbiturates, possibly concurrent with a heart attack. It is not known whether the death was a suicide or an accidental overdose, although the amount of barbiturate in her system "could well have been accidental," said medical examiner James Luke.[58] Dorothy Kilgallen was interred in a modest grave at Gate of Heaven Cemetery in Hawthorne, New York.

The footstone of Dorothy Kilgallen in Gate of Heaven Cemetery

Kilgallen and Arlene Francis appeared as Joan Crawford impostors on an episode of the daytime version of To Tell The Truth that was videotaped on November 2, 1965, and broadcast six days later while United Press International broke the news about Kilgallen's death.[59] CBS News immediately noticed the report on its UPI teleprinter machine. [60] Anchor Douglas Edwards announced it during the five-minute live newscast he regularly did promptly after the closing credits of To Tell The Truth.[60] He clarified for viewers that the preceding broadcast on which they had seen Kilgallen had been "prerecorded."[60]

Many newspapers throughout North America reported what Dr. James Luke said about the cause of Kilgallen's death. Only the New York Post reported his estimate of the time of her death: November 15, 1965, page 5.

Conspiracy theories[edit]

In November 1966, Ramparts (magazine) published an article reporting on Penn Jones, Jr.'s "discovery of a series of mysterious deaths, possibly related to the assassination of [President Kennedy]".[61] While David Welsh of Ramparts placed Kilgallen among a group of "at least 10 such persons are known to have been murdered, to have committed suicide or died in suspicious circumstances since the Kennedy assassination", he prefaced his comments with: "We know of no serious person who really believes that the death of Dorothy Kilgallen, the gossip columnist, was related to the Kennedy assassination."[61]

The February 1967 edition of Cosmopolitan, then edited by Helen Gurley Brown, reprinted the Ramparts article. Kilgallen's claims that she was under surveillance [62][unreliable source?] led to a theory that she might have been murdered. She reportedly had told a few friends after her Ruby interview that she was "about to blow the JFK case sky high."[63] Throughout her career she consistently refused to identify any of her sources whenever a government agency questioned her, and that might have posed a threat to the alleged JFK conspirators.[64][unreliable source?]

Kilgallen's autopsy did not suggest evidence of homicide.[4][unreliable source?] According to Kilgallen's Washington Post obituary, Dr. Luke spent 45 minutes at the death scene.[65]

Referring to Kilgallen's death certificate, Dr. DiMaio said in a 1995 interview quoted in Midwest Today magazine, "I wasn't stationed in Manhattan [where Kilgallen died]. I was in Brooklyn. Are you sure I signed it? I don't see how the hell I could have signed it in the first place. You got me."[7] He added that the only reason why Dr. Luke would not have signed the document was if he had not visited the death scene or performed the autopsy.[7] [65]

After death and legacy[edit]

At the time of her death in November 1965, Dorothy Kilgallen and Richard Kollmar had been married for 25 years, and she left behind three children. A year and a half after Kilgallen's death, Kollmar, then 56, married designer Anne Fogarty, who had created the dress Kilgallen had worn on What's My Line? the last night of her life.[7] Kollmar died at age 60, three years and six and a half months after marrying Fogarty. Newspaper obituaries said Kollmar "died in his sleep" at home.

Photograph of the Kollmars possibly taken in 1961

He was not interred with Kilgallen at Gate of Heaven Cemetery. A 1979 Kilgallen biography by Lee Israel said Kollmar "took his own life in January 1971, swallowing everything in reach."[66][unreliable source?] Although he seemed to have swallowed many more pills than his first wife had five years and two months earlier,[67][unreliable source?] the medical examiner did not call it a suicide. Kollmar's death was not a major news item, as Kilgallen's had been, and medical examiner findings about his death were not made public until years later when Israel obtained documents from the M.E.'s office, with help from the youngest child of the Kollmars.[68][unreliable source?]

Their youngest child, Kerry Kollmar, was eleven when his mother died. Between 1975 and 1978, he assisted Lee Israel with her work on a biography of his mother. Kollmar helped Israel obtain medical records from his mother's two confinements at NYU Langone Medical Center in March and April 1965. They had something to do with a cast on her left forearm that she can be seen wearing on the April 25, 1965, live telecast of What's My Line?.[69] The documents contained little more than a notation that Dorothy Kilgallen's overall health was "excellent" [70][unreliable source?] and that she had fractured her left shoulder.[70][unreliable source?] Kollmar also interviewed two of his mother's personal physicians, who claimed to have examined her as she lay dead in her home.[71][unreliable source?] Neither offered an opinion on the cause of death. Although Kerry Kollmar provided this assistance to Lee Israel, he never said whether he thought his mother could have been murdered. If Dorothy Kilgallen learned dangerous secrets, she did not share them with her eleven-year-old son.

One of two known comments Richard Kollmar made after her death about his first wife was later recalled by Bob Bach, who booked the mystery guests for What's My Line?. At Bach's home several hours after her funeral, the television producer asked the widower to discuss his wife's interest in the assassination, and Kollmar replied, "Robert, I'm afraid that will have to go to the grave with me."[72][unreliable source?]

Author Mark Lane is the source for Kollmar's other known remark. An essay on John McAdams' website about the JFK assassination claims that Lane told Kilgallen everything she knew about the assassination except for how to obtain the 102-page Warren Commission Ruby transcript, which came to her from an unknown person.[44] This contradicts statements by Lane in the Israel book, in a 1977 issue of the Midnight supermarket tabloid preserved at the National Archives, on talk radio in 1993 and on the Geraldo Rivera TV show Now It Can Be Told in 1992. Lane's side of the story is that a few weeks after the last comment Kilgallen published about the assassination (an item in her September 3, 1965, Voice of Broadway column about Marina Oswald Porter and her incriminating photograph of Lee holding a rifle and socialist literature), Kilgallen told him by telephone that she planned to visit Dallas again. She did not name any of her sources there, and she declined to tell him who she thought might have shot the president. They never communicated again. A month after her death, Lane contacted Kollmar to ask where her notes were. Lane and Kollmar had met in Kilgallen's presence at the Kollmar brownstone more than a year earlier.[62][unreliable source?] Kollmar got rid of Lane quickly, asserting that his late wife's discoveries have "done enough damage already" [72][unreliable source?] and "too many people have suffered as a result."[73] Lane never learned anything further about Dorothy Kilgallen's opinions or findings about the assassination.[74]

On the What's My Line? broadcast following Kilgallen's death, host John Charles Daly opened the show explaining that, after consulting with "her good husband Dick Kollmar," the show's tribute to her would be to go on as usual. Much of the text of Daly's announcement was identical to the announcement he'd made at the beginning of the broadcast the night after regular panelist Fred Allen died. During their usual "goodnights," each panel member gave a short tribute to her. Bennett Cerf and Steve Allen reminded viewers that her "line" was a print reporter while Arlene Francis and Kitty Carlisle focused on the impact Kilgallen had on the television show.[75]

1968 paperback edition of Dorothy Kilgallen's Murder One from Dell Publishing Company

Although Bennett Cerf was audiotaped on January 23, 1968, reminiscing about Kilgallen, he said nothing about her death or about the book, Murder One, that his company Random House had published in 1967 with the late Dorothy Kilgallen listed as the sole author. Years after his death, his widow Phyllis Fraser admitted to Kilgallen biographer Lee Israel that a writer named Allan Ullman had written it with Richard Kollmar's approval.

Kilgallen's private secretary, Myrtle Verne, who can be seen as one of the contestants on a 1957 episode of What's My Line?, died on January 10, 1975, shortly before Israel began contacting people for her biography.[76]

Despite Richard Kollmar's public silence about his late wife, her father, Jim Kilgallen, still a highly respected reporter at age 77, did speak for publication. The breaking story of her death in the Journal American, where father and daughter both worked, quoted him as saying she "apparently suffered a heart attack, her first." [77] He reminisced fondly about her career and girlish quality for the February 1966 issue of TV Radio Mirror. He said he knew nothing about her prescription medication and declined to discuss the Kennedy assassination.[78] During this period Jack O'Brian took over the Voice of Broadway column, but the Journal American ceased publication in April 1966 with O'Brian and other Journal American columnists becoming part of the short-lived New York World Journal Tribune. Later in the 1960s and in the 1970s, Jim Kilgallen continued working as a reporter with his articles appearing in the Hearst papers that remained outside New York City, but his Hearst colleagues knew not to ask him about his late daughter, and so did his "friends of longstanding," said biographer Israel.[79][unreliable source?] Contacted by Israel, he wrote to her on January 26, 1976, that he would not help her,[80][unreliable source?] noting that he was sticking to "a firm policy" he had maintained since his daughter's death "not to grant interviews to anyone concerning her career."[81][unreliable source?]

Dorothy Kilgallen has a star in the Hollywood Walk of Fame on Hollywood Boulevard.[82]

In the 2012 comic novel Nick and Jake, by Tad Richards and Jonathan Richards, Kilgallen breaks the news story that paints protagonist Nick Carraway (from The Great Gatsby) as a subversive, thus destroying his career.[83]

Kilgallen was also the inspiration for the character of "Daisy Kilgranite", the less-than-ethical columnist in the episode "The Little White Lie" of the popular animated sitcom The Flintstones that aired on ABC in November, 1961. Comedienne Sandra Gould (who later played Gladys Kravitz on Bewitched) was the voice of Daisy.

Filmography[edit]

  • Sinner Take All (1936)
  • Fly Away Baby (1937)
  • Pajama Party (Uncredited, 1964)

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Israel, Lee (1979). Kilgallen. Delacorte Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-440-04522-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Riley, Sam G. (1995). Biographical Dictionary of American Newspaper Columnists. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 157. ISBN 0-313-29192-6. 
  3. ^ a b c Signorielli, Nancy (1996). Women in Communication: A Biographical Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 245. ISBN 0-313-29164-0. 
  4. ^ a b Israel, page 410
  5. ^ Israel, page 414
  6. ^ Gingrich, Arnold (1936). Coronet. David A. Smart. p. 55. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jordan, Sara (2007). "Who Killed Dorothy Kilgallen?". Midwest Today. 
  8. ^ Israel, page 88
  9. ^ Israel, page 97
  10. ^ Israel, page 94
  11. ^ IMDB entry
  12. ^ SpartacusUK entry
  13. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy. "The Voice of Broadway." New York Journal American. May 30, 1952.
  14. ^ Suskin, Steven (2006). Second Act Trouble: Behind the Scenes at Broadway's Big Musical Bombs. Hal Leonard. p. 243. ISBN 1-55783-631-0. 
  15. ^ Cerf, Bennett (session 16) (1968-01-23). Notable New Yorkers. Interview with Robbin Hawkins. Columbia University Libraries Oral History Research Office. New York City, New York. Retrieved 2008-04-27. 
  16. ^ a b Cerf, Bennett (session 16) (1968-01-23). Notable New Yorkers. Interview with Robbin Hawkins. Columbia University Libraries Oral History Research Office. New York City, New York. Retrieved 2008-04-27.  at p.739.
  17. ^ The Body Beautiful at the Internet Broadway Database
  18. ^ source on Ron Pataky and Dorothy Kilgallen
  19. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (1954-12-22). "Sheppard Guilty; Dorothy Kilgallen Astounded By Verdict". New York Journal American. p. 1. 
  20. ^ legitimate source on Sam Sheppard's career specialty -- a Cleveland historical society
  21. ^ McCarty, James F. (1999-07-20). "Eberling Tape `Very Close To A Confession,' Lawyer Says". The Plain Dealer. pp. 1B. 
  22. ^ Ewinger, James; Hagan, John F. (2000-02-24). "Woman Testifies Eberling Said He Was Killer". The Plain Dealer. pp. 2B. 
  23. ^ Feagler, Dick (1998-12-09). "1st Officer At Sheppard Murder Holds To View". The Plain Dealer. pp. 2A. 
  24. ^ Dirck, Joe (1998-12-13). "Facts On Sheppard Don't Bother Some". The Plain Dealer. pp. 1B. 
  25. ^ Pollack, Jack Harrison (1972). Dr. Sam: An American Tragedy. H. Regnery Co. p. 205. 
  26. ^ "Sam Sheppard: Some 35-year-old questions". The Plain Dealer. 1989-08-08. pp. 1B. 
  27. ^ Pollack, Jack Harrison (1972). Dr. Sam: An American Tragedy. H. Regnery Co. p. 206. 
  28. ^ Israel, page 277
  29. ^ Hearst, Jr., William Randolph; Hearst, William Randolph (2001). The Hearsts: Father and Son. Casserly, Jack. Roberts Rinehart Publishers. pp. 231, 232, 233. ISBN 1-57098-402-6. 
  30. ^ website on the Till murder trial lists James Kilgallen as one of the reporters
  31. ^ Elisberg, Robert J. "More What's My Line". Elisberg Industries. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  32. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (May 22, 1955). "Ee-eek! Little Men From Space". New York Journal American. p. 1. 
  33. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (May 23, 1955). "Those Little Men In Space - Real, Says Kilgallen". Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 1. 
  34. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (May 23, 1955). "Briton Certain 'Discs' Come Out of Space". Washington Post. p. 8. 
  35. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent (2007). Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 1015–1016. ISBN 0-393-04525-0. 
  36. ^ New York Journal American August 18–20, 1964 front pages
  37. ^ Philadelphia Inquirer August 19–21, 1964 front pages
  38. ^ Seattle Post Intelligencer August 19–21, 1964 front pages
  39. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron (November 1983). "Pieces of the Puzzle" [a sidebar in an article titled] "Still On the Case". Texas Monthly pg. 156 Texas Monthly piece titled "Pieces of the Puzzle" on page 156 in November 1983 issue – one of many articles with the umbrella title "Oswald's Ghost."
  40. ^ New York Journal American August 18, 1964 front page
  41. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy. "The Voice of Broadway." New York Journal American. July 15, 1959.
  42. ^ Hoover's handwriting including "flighty and irresponsible" description of Kilgallen can be seen here in the pages of her FBI file that the agency has chosen to release under the FOIA.
  43. ^ Israel, page 388
  44. ^ a b c d Paddon, Eric. "Dorothy Kilgallen And The JFK Assassination". mcadams.posc.mu.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-08. 
  45. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy. "The Voice of Broadway: A Personal Reaction to the Warren Report." New York Journal American. September 30, 1964.Xerox from microfilm on a website devoted to Dorothy Kilgallen
  46. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (June 9, 1965). "Princess Lee's in the Wings". New York Journal American. Retrieved June 22, 2013. 
  47. ^ Hoberman, J. (September 14, 2003). "FILM: A Co-Production of Sinatra and J.F.K.". New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2013. 
  48. ^ This is a legitimate source on the date of Manchurian Candidate's American television premiere, September 16, 1965. It was three months after Kilgallen's comment on it that was published on June 9, 1965.
  49. ^ a b Kilgallen, Dorothy. "The Voice of Broadway." New York Journal-American. September 3, 1965.
  50. ^ McNally, Karen (2008). When Frankie Went to Hollywood: Frank Sinatra and American Male Identity. University of Illinois Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-252-07542-0. 
  51. ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (2006). Becoming Almost Famous: My Back Pages in Music, Writing, and Life. Backbeat Books. p. 153. ISBN 0-87930-880-X. 
  52. ^ The Rat Pack: Live at the Sands; Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin and Sammy Davis, Jr.
  53. ^ Roberts, Michael Denver Westword Music December 20, 2001.
  54. ^ a b Nassour, Ellis (1994). Honky tonk angel: The Intimate Story of Patsy Cline. Macmillan. p. 274. ISBN 0-312-95158-2. 
  55. ^ Strippers, Showgirls and Sharks: a Very Opinionated History of the Broadway Musicals That Did Not Win the Tony Award by Peter Filichia, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2013, p. 134
  56. ^ Filichia, Peter.Strippers, Showgirls and Sharks: a Very Opinionated History of the Broadway Musicals That Did Not Win the Tony Award St. Martin's Press, New York, 2013, p 134
  57. ^ "Skyscraper". Internet Broadway Database. 
  58. ^ "Medical Examiner on Dorothy Kilgallen: Barbiturates and Alcohol". New York Herald Tribune. November 16, 1965. p. 25. 
  59. ^ Krebs, Alvin. Dorothy Kilgallen Dead. New York Herald Tribune November 9, 1965, front page.
  60. ^ a b c Krebs, Alvin. Dorothy Kilgallen Dead. New York Herald Tribune November 9, 1965, front page.
  61. ^ a b Welsh, David (November 1966). "The Legacy of Penn Jones, Jr.". Ramparts (San Francisco: Edward M. Keating) 5 (5): 39–50. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  62. ^ a b Israel, page 393
  63. ^ Oglesby, Carl (1976). The Yankee and Cowboy War: Conspiracies from Dallas to Watergate. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8362-0680-7. 
  64. ^ Israel, pages 389, 390, 440
  65. ^ a b "Dorothy Kilgallen, 'Voice of Broadway' Columnist, Dead". Washington Post. November 9, 1965. pp. B5. 
  66. ^ Israel, page 426
  67. ^ Israel, page 438
  68. ^ Israel, page 464
  69. ^ What's My Line?, dated April 25, 1965.
  70. ^ a b Israel, page 398
  71. ^ Israel, pages 419, 421
  72. ^ a b Israel, page 443
  73. ^ Appearance by Mark Lane and Dick Gregory on an AM radio show hosted by Jim Bohannon. This particular broadcast dates from March 31, 1993. Lane and Gregory were promoting their new book, Murder in Memphis: The FBI and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, but a telephone caller asked Lane about Kilgallen and his reply included the quote from her husband "too many people have suffered as a result."
  74. ^ Appearance by Mark Lane and Dick Gregory on an AM radio show hosted by Jim Bohannon. This particular broadcast dates from March 31, 1993. Audio is part of YouTube video entitled, "Dorothy Kilgallen the reporter had many sources."
  75. ^ What's My Line?, dated November 14, 1965.
  76. ^ "Deaths". New York Times. January 14, 1975. p. 36. 
  77. ^ "Dorothy Kilgallen Dead." New York Journal American, November 8, 1965, front page and continuation
  78. ^ Carpozi, George (February 1966). "An Ace Reporter Remembers His Daughter". TV Radio Mirror. 
  79. ^ Israel, page 1
  80. ^ Israel, pages 2, 445
  81. ^ Israel, page 2
  82. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: A guide to the thousands of stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  83. ^ Arcade Publishing

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