Driving license in Japan
In Japan, a driving license (運転免許 Unten menkyo?) is required when operating an automobile, motorcycle or moped on public roads. Driving licenses are issued by the prefectural governments' public safety commissions and are overseen on a nationwide basis by the National Police Agency.
Types of license
Japanese licenses are divided by experience level and by vehicle type.
|Provisional license||仮運転免許||Issued to a new driver undergoing training for their Class 1 license. Requires the driver to display learner's black-on-white plates on the exterior of the vehicle, and to be accompanied by a supervising experienced Class 1 license holder while driving. This license is expired unless a learner driver gains Class 1 license within six months.|
|Class 1 license||第一種運転免許||The ordinary license for operating a private automobile.|
|Class 2 license||第二種運転免許||Required when operating a commercial passenger-carrying vehicle such as a taxi or bus. Driver must be 21 years of age or older and have at least three years of experience driving under a Class 1 license (relaxed to two years for members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces).|
The vehicle classes are as follows:
|Heavy vehicle||大型自動車||Any automobile which weighs 11,000 kg or more, has maximum capacity of 6,500 kg or more, or carries 30 or more people.|
|Medium vehicle||中型自動車||Any automobile which weighs 5,000 kg or more, has maximum capacity of 3,000 kg or more, or carries 11 or more people.|
|Ordinary vehicle||普通自動車||Any automobile outside the other classifications.|
|Heavy special vehicle||大型特殊自動車||Specialized automotive equipment such as tractors or cranes which are used for particular work and are not classified as small special vehicles.|
|Small special vehicle||小型特殊自動車||Specialized automotive equipment with a maximum speed of 15 km/h or less AND no larger than 4.7m × 1.7m × 2.8 m.|
|Heavy motorcycle||大型自動二輪車||Any motorcycle with engine displacement over 400 cc.|
|Ordinary motorcycle||普通自動二輪車||Any motorcycle with engine displacement over 50 cc.|
|Moped||原動機付自転車||Any motorcycle with engine displacement of 50 cc or less.|
Ordinary, heavy motorcycle and ordinary motorcycle license classes are either "unrestricted" (i.e., the driver may use a manual transmission or automatic transmission vehicle) or "restricted to automatic".
The vehicle type ratings are as follows:
Class 1 license
|Vehicle types allowed to drive||Minimum
|Vehicle (自動車)||Special vehicle (特殊自動車)||Motorcycle (自動二輪車)||Moped
|Heavy (大型)||Medium (中型)||Ordinary (普通)||Heavy (大型)||Small (小型)||Heavy (大型)||Ordinary (普通)|
|Heavy (大型)||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||21 (20)|
|Medium (中型)||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||Permitted||20 (19)|
|Moped license (原動機付自転車免許)||Permitted||16|
|Trailer license (牽引免許)||Required to drive any trailer-pulling automobile in excess of 750 kg total weight (other than when towing damaged vehicles).||18|
The Japanese driving examination consists of a written examination and a practical examination for each level of license. Most Japanese go to a licensed driving school prior to taking these examinations (though it's not required), and upon completing the course, register for the examinations in the prefecture where they are registered as a resident. The practical examination consists of driving a vehicle through a purpose-designed driving course while obeying relevant rules of the road.
Japan also allows Japan-resident holders of foreign driving licenses to convert their foreign license to a Japanese license through an abbreviated examination process. This consists of an eyesight test and, depending on the issuing country of the foreign license, may also require a short written examination and a practical examination. However, the pass rate for the practical exam is only about 35% for Americans, for example, but those who take the regular, lengthy and expensive course and test reportedly have a 90 to 100% pass rate, even though this exam is much harder. The fee for an English-speaking foreigner to obtain a license from a Japanese driving school is about ¥400,000 (about $3900).
Driving License Card
Every licensed driver is issued with a Driving License Card (運転免許証 Unten Menkyo Shou?), which they are required to have available for inspection whenever they exercise the privileges granted by the license.
Layout of a Driving License Card
The sections of the shown sample license are:
|1||年 月 日生||Date of Birth|
|2||氏名||Last name and first name|
|4||交付||Date of Issue of the card|
|5||年 月 日まで有効||Date of expiration of the card||Background color: green for new drivers (valid for 3 years), blue for normal drivers (valid for 3 years), gold for good drivers (no violations during the previous license period, valid for 5 years)|
|6||免許の条件等||Conditions||In this sample, vehicles weighing up to 8 tonnes.|
|7||見本||"Sample"||Doesn't exist on a normal license|
|8||優良||Superior||Annotation for the good drivers (with gold background)|
|10||二•小•原||Date of first issue of motorcycle licenses||Including motorcycles (二輪車), small special vehicle (小型特殊自動車), or moped license (原動機付自転車).|
|11||他||Date of first issue of other licenses||Other categories exclude the commercial ones.|
|12||二種||Date of first issue of commercial licenses||Literally means driving license of the second kind|
|13||種類||Honored categories||Valid categories are shown in abbreviations in Kanji, invalid only with a hyphen.|
|14||番号||Number||Intra-office reference number.|
|15||公安委員会||Issuing authority||Public Safety Commission of a prefecture|
|16||Seal||Official seal of the prefectural public safety commission|
The dates are written in year-month-day order. The years follow the Japanese era calendar scheme. The months and days follow the Gregorian calendar, as in most Western countries.
|Era and Year||Month||Day|
|Meiji (明治?) 1868–1912
Taishō (大正?) 1912–1926
Shōwa (昭和?) 1926–1989
Heisei (平成?) 1989–
- the driver's date of birth (昭和５０年６月１日) is the 1st day (１日) of the 6th month (６月) of the 50th year (５０年) of the reign of Emperor Shōwa (昭和), or 1 June 1975
- the expiry date (平成２４年０７月０１日) is the 1st day (０１日) of the 7th month (０７月) of the 24th year (２４年) of the reign of Emperor Heisei (平成), or 1 July 2012
Categories of Japanese license
Abbreviated names of the categories of vehicle this license includes. For illustrative purposes, this sample license shows every category. Category names are in the same places on every license. If a category is not included in a license, in the place where the category name would appear there is a horizontal bar.
|English||Heavy vehicle||Medium vehicle||Ordinary vehicle||Heavy special vehicle||Heavy motorcycle||Ordinary motorcycle||Small special vehicle|
Amendments to the license, such as a change of address, can be recorded on the reverse side of the license. For amendments that cannot be recorded in this manner, a new license must be issued.
- "Driving in Japan - Passing the Japanese Driver's Test". Retrieved 3 April 2012.
- "Driving in Japan". U.S. Embassy in Japan. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- "Driving in Japan: Passing the Japanese Driver’s Test". Gakuranman. March 2012.