List of rulers of Milan

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The following is a list of rulers of the Duchy of Milan from the 13th century to 1859, when Milan and the rest of Lombardy were incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia after the Second Italian War of Independence.

Name Began Reign Ended Reign Notes
Lords of Milan, houses of della Torre (also known as Torriani) and Visconti
Pagano I della Torre 1240 1247
Pagano II della Torre 1247 1257
Manfredi Lancia 1253 1256
Martino della Torre 1257 1259
Oberto Pallavicino 1259 1264
Filippo della Torre 1263 1265
Napoleone della Torre 1265 1277
Ottone Visconti, Archbishop of Milan 1277 1294
Matteo I Visconti 1294 1302 grand-nephew of Ottone
Guido della Torre 1302 1311
Matteo I Visconti 1311 1322 restored
Galeazzo I Visconti 1322 1327 son of Matteo
Azzone Visconti 1327 1339 son of Galeazzo I
Luchino Visconti 1339 1349 brother of Galeazzo I and uncle of Azzone
Giovanni Visconti 1349 1354 brother of Galeazzo I and Luchino
Bernabò Visconti 1354 1385 nephew of Galeazzo I, Luchino and Giovanni, son of Stefano
Galeazzo II Visconti 1354 1378 nephew of Galeazzo I, Luchino and Giovanni, son of Stefano
Matteo II Visconti 1354 1355 nephew of Galeazzo I, Luchino and Giovanni, son of Stefano
Gian Galeazzo I Visconti 4 August 1378 1 May 1395 son of Galeazzo II
Dukes of Milan, rulers of the Duchy of Milan
Gian Galeazzo I Visconti 1 May 1395 3 September 1402
Gian Maria Visconti 3 September 1402 16 May 1412 son of Gian Galeazzo; assassinated
Filippo I Maria Visconti 12 June 1412 13 August 1447 brother of Gian Maria
Ambrosian Republic
13 August 1447 – 25 March 1450
Francesco I Sforza 25 March 1450 8 March 1466 married a daughter of Filippo Maria
Galeazzo III Maria Sforza 20 March 1466 26 December 1476 son of Francesco
Gian Galeazzo II Sforza 26 December 1476 22 October 1494 son of Galeazzo Maria
Ludovico Sforza 22 October 1494 2 September 1499 son of Francesco
Louis XII of France 6 September 1499 5 February 1500 grandson of Valentina, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti
Ludovico Sforza 3 February 1500 10 April 1500 (restored)
Louis XII of France 17 April 1500 16 June 1512 restored
Massimiliano Sforza 16 June 1512 8 October 1515 son of Lodovico
Francis I of France 11 October 1515 19 November 1521 son-in-law and cousin of Louis XII of France
Francesco II Sforza 19 November 1521 3 October 1524 son of Lodovico, brother of Massimiliano
Francis I of France 23 October 1524 24 February 1525 restored
Francesco II Sforza 26 February 1525 1 November 1535 restored
Spanish Rule 1540–1706
Philip II of Spain 11 October 1540 13 September 1598 After the death of Francesco II, claimed by emperor Charles V as an imperial fief for his son.
Philip III of Spain 13 September 1598 31 March 1621 son of Philip II
Philip IV of Spain 31 March 1621 17 September 1665 son of Philip III
Charles II of Spain 17 September 1665 1 November 1700 son of Philip IV
Philip V of Spain 1 November 1700 24 September 1706 great-grandson of Philip IV
Austrian Rule 1706–1800
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor 12 January 1707 20 October 1740 great-grandson of Philip III
Maria Theresa 20 October 1740 29 November 1780 daughter of Charles VI
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor 29 November 1780 20 February 1790 son of Maria Theresa
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 20 February 1790 1 March 1792 brother of Joseph II
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 1 March 1792 9 May 1796 son of Leopold II
Transpadane Republic
15 November 1796 – 29 June 1797
Cisalpine Republic
29 June 1797 – 29 April 1799
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 29 April 1799 29 April 1800 (restored)
Cisalpine Republic (restored)
29 April 1800 – 26 January 1802
President of the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana)
Napoleon Bonaparte 26 January 1802 18 March 1805
King of Italy (Italian: Regno d'Italia)
Napoleon I 18 March 1805 28 April 1814
Eugène de Beauharnais 18 March 1805 28 April 1814 Viceroy for Napoleon I
Kings of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: Regno Lombardo–Veneto)
Franz I of Austria 7 April 1815 2 March 1835 previously Duke of Milan
Archduke Anton Victor of Austria 7 March 1816 January 1818 Viceroy for Franz I
Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria January 1818 2 March 1835 Viceroy for Franz I
Ferdinand I of Austria 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 son of Franz I
Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria 2 March 1835 May 1848 Viceroy for Ferdinand I
Count Joseph Radetzky von Radetz 6 August 1848 2 December 1848 Viceroy for Ferdinand I
Franz Joseph of Austria 2 December 1848 10 November 1859 nephew of Ferdinand I
Count Joseph Radetzky von Radetz 2 December 1848 6 September 1857 Viceroy for Franz Joseph
Archduke Maximilian of Austria 6 September 1857 20 April 1859 Viceroy for Franz Joseph
Count Ferencz Gyulai 20 April 1859 8 June 1859 Viceroy for Franz Joseph
Heinrich Hermann Josef Freiherr von Heß 8 June 1859 1 August 1859 acting viceroy for Franz Joseph

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]